Bibliography of Vergilian Scholarship: 1990-1991

Table of Contents

The present survey of Vergilian scholarship is the twenty-ninth in the VERGILIUS Series. Classical World 68:1 (1974) published in association with The Vergilian Society, contains my ``Recent Work on Vergil: A Bibliographical Survey, 1964-1973.'' The survey was reprinted in The Classical World Bibliography of Vergil, ed. Walter Donlan (New York & London: Garland 1978).

Subsequent reviews of scholarship have appeared in VERGILIUS 19 (1973), 20 (1974), 21 (1975), 22 (1976) 23, (1977, 24 (1978), 25 (1979), 26 (1980), 27 (1981), 28 (1982), 29 (1983), 30 (1984), 31 (1985), 32 (1986), 33 (1987), 34 (1988), 35 (1989), and 36 (1990).

The 1990-1991 compilation is greatly indebted to the assistance and cooperation of several libraries: Mills Memorial Library, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario; John P. Robarts Library, University of Toronto; and the Library of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ. Offprints of articles, chapters and titles for inclusion in the annual VERGILIUS bibliography have once again been generously provided by readers. Users will notice that the format of the ``Bibliography'' has been refined somewhat for ease of consultation. Approximately the same pattern will be adopted in the Quarter Century of Vergilian Scholarship which is scheduled for publication by Garland Press, New York, during 1992. As always, authors and scholars are once again invited to send offprints and advice to the editor, Alexander G. McKay, Department of Classics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M2 Canada.


1. G. Cupaiuolo, ``Notizario bibliografico (1988-89),'' BStudLat 19 (1989) 352-360; ``Notizario bibliografico (1989-90),'' BStudLat 20 (1990) 327-329.

2. Juliette Ernst, Viktor Poeschl, Laurence D. Stephens (eds.), L'Année Philologique. Bibliographie critique et analytique de l'antiquité greco-latine 58, Paris, 1990.

3. James P. Holoka, ``Homer Studies, 1978-1983 Part II,'' CW 84 (1990) 132-136.

4. Craig Kallendorf, ``Vergilian Scholarship in the Nineties: A Panel, Nachleben,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 82-98.

5. Alexander G. McKay, ``Vergilian Bibliography 1989-90,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 104-128.

6. Meyer Reinhold, Emily Albu Hanawalt, and Sandra Jamie Parker, ``Bibliography of the Classical Tradition for 1988,'' CML 11 (1991) 259-260.


7. AA.VV., Actas del VII simpósio nacional de estúdios clásicos (Buenos Aires 1982) Buenos Aires 1986. [BUENOS AIRES]

8. AA.VV., Assoc. Italiano cultura classica. Atti del Convegno Nazionale di Studi su la Donna nel mondo antico. Torino, 21-23 Aprile 1986. R. Uglione, ed. Torino 1987. Rev: Viparelli, BStudLat 18 (1988) 172-175. [DONNA]

9. AA.VV., Lectures Médiévales de Virgile. Actes du Colloque organisé par l'École française de Rome (Rome, 25-28 Octobre 1982). Rev: Abriani, BStudLat 18 (1988) 131-133. [LECTURES MEDIEVALES]

10. AA.VV., Filologia e forme letterarie. Studi offerti a F. della Corte. Vols. 1-5. Urbino 1987. Rev: Viparelli, BStudLat 18 (1988) 175-178.

11. AA.VV., La filologia greca e latina nel secolo XX. Vols. 1, 2, 3. Pisa 1989.

12. AA.VV., Giorgio Pasquali e le filologia classica del novecento. Firenze 1988. Rev: Viparelli, BStudLat 19 (1989) 205-12.

13. AA. VV., Mnemosynum: Studi in onore di Alfredo Ghiselli. Bologna 1989. [GHISELLI]

14. Aldo S. Bernardo, Saul Levin, eds., The Classics in the Middle Ages. Papers of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Binghamton NY, 1990. [MIDDLE AGES]

15. Ward W. Briggs, William M. Calder III, Classical Scholarship: A Bibliographical Encyclopedia. New York 1990. Rev: Reinhold, NECNJ 18:2 (1990) 43-45.

16. M. A. Cervellera, D. Luizzi, eds., L'astronomia a Roma nell'età augustea. Lecce 1989. Rev: Paolella, BStudLat 20 (1990) 170-173 [ASTRONOMIA]

17. G. D'Anna, Virgilio: Sassi critici. Roma 1989. Rev: Barchiesi, BFIC 118 (1990) 470-472; Squillante, BStudLat 20 (1990) 118-120.

18. F. Della Corte (ed.), Enciclopedia Virgiliana. I: A-DA; (Roma 1984); II: DE-IN (Roma 1985); III: IO-PA (Roma 1987); IV: PE-S (Roma 1988); V: T-Z (Roma 1990). Rev: Pugliesi Caratelli, PP 1985, 393-396; Suerbaum, Gnomon 60 (1988) 302-313.

19. J. Diggle, J. B. Hall, H. D. Jocelyn, Studies in Latin Literature and Its Tradition in Honour of C. O. Brink. PCPS Suppl. 15. Cambridge 1989. Rev: Fowler, G&R 37 (1990) 111; Horsfall, CR 40 (1990) 447-448. [BRINK STUDIES]

20. Marcello Gigante, ed., Virgilio e Gli Augustei. Napoli 1990. [AUGUSTEI]

21. S. J. Harrison, Oxford Readings in Vergil's Aeneid. Oxford 1990. Rev: Farrell, BMCR 2 (1990) 88-93.

22. N. Horsfall, ed., Vir bonus discendi peritus. Studies in Celebration of Otto Skutsch's Eightieth Birthday. Oxford 1990. Rev: Reeve, CR 40 (1990) 449-52.

23. Klaus Kubusch, ed., Walter Wimmel: Collectanea Augustertum und späte Republik. Stuttgart 1987. [WIMMEL] Rev: Dehon, Latomus 49 (1990) 725.

24. C. Leoncini et al., Virgilio, XIX A.C. - A.D. MCMLXXXI: Primo catalogo collettivo delle biblioteche italiane. Roma 1981.

25. Ian McAuslan, Peter Walcot, eds., Virgil. (Greece and Rome Studies, 1). Oxford 1990. Rev: T.L. Calder, VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 135-36.

26. D. J. Mastronarde, ed., Cabinet of the Muses. Essays on Classical and Comparative Literature in Honor of Thomas G. Rosenmeyer. Atlanta, GA 1989. [CABINET]

27. D. Porte, J. P. Neraudau, eds., Hommages à Henry le Bonniec. Res sacrae. Collection Latomus 201. Bruxelles 1988. Rev: Viparelli, BStudLat 19 (1989) 216-217.

28. F. Robertson, ed., Meminisse Iuvabit: Selections from the Proceedings of the Virgil Society. Bristol 1988. Rev: Fitzhenry, JACTR 7 (1990) 26-27.

29. Robert F. Sutton, Daidalikon: Studies in Memory of Raymond V. Schoder. Wauconda, IL. 1989. Rev: Huxley, London Assoc. Classical Teachers Newsletter 47 (1990) 19-20. [DAIDALIKON]

Briggs and Calder offer profiles of three Vergilian scholars in their catalogue: Tenney Frank (68-76), Gilbert Highet (183-191), and Eduard Norden (341-345). The late Otto Skutsch and R. A. B. Mynors must now be included in its sequel. D'Anna's collected papers is a rich offering for Vergilians. Della Corte's monumental Enciclopedia Virgiliana offers basic information and valuable bibliographies passim. Harrison's Oxford Readings contains 25 previously published contributions and a new introductory essay by the editor, ``Some Views of the Aeneid in the Twentieth Century'' (1-20). McAuslan and Walcot offer 15 essays published between 1972 and 1985; nine are concerned with the epic, two with the Georgics and the remainder with general topics.


30. David R. Slavitt, Eclogues and Georgics of Virgil. Baltimore 1990. Rev: Clauss, BMCR 2 (1991) 101-104.

31. David West, Virgil: The Aeneid. A New Prose Translation, with an introduction by David West. Harmondsworth, 1990.

Slavitt's verse adaptations, a reprinting of the 1971-72 edition, contains a new preface. The colloquial rendering plays ``fast and loose with Vergil.'' David West's Penguin prose translation replaces Jackson Knight's ``established'' version. West has preferred simplicity to archaic expressions and succeeds brilliantly in retaining the sense and tenor of the original Latin.


32. T. Alimonti, ``L'independenza delle tradizioni e l'autorevolezza dei due elenchi nelle antiche Vitae Vergilianae,'' CCC 10 (1989) 245-272.

33. A. Salvatore, ``Appendix Virgiliana,'' EncVirg 3: 229-233.

34. M. Bonour, ``Culex'', EncVirg 1: 948-949.

35. A. Salvatore, ``Su alcuni luoghi controversi della Ciris,'' GHISELLI 489-496.

36. F. R. D. Goodyear, ``Ciris,'' EncVirg 1: 798-800.

37. A. Perutelli, ``Moretum,'' EncVirg 3: 585-587.

38. F. Della Corte, ``Dirae,'' EncVirg 2: 91-94.

39. A. Franzoi, ed., Copa: L'Ostessa. Poemetto pseudovirgiliano. Padova 1988. Rev: Cutolo, Vichiana 18 (1989) 388-391.

40. Richard F. Thomas, ``A Bibulous Couch [Verg.,] Copa 5-6?,'' CP 86 (1991) 41-3.

41. A. De Vivo, ed. Incerti auctoris Aetna. Napoli 1987. Rev: Polara, BStudLat 18 (1988) 144.

42. A. De Vivo, ``Considerazioni sull' Aetna: rapporti con Seneca, epoca della composizione,'' Vichiana 18 (1989) 63-85.

43. D. Lassandro, A. Luisi, ed., Aetnae poematis lexicon. Genova 1989.

44. J. A. Richmond, ``Catalepton,'' EncVirg 1: 697-700.

45. M. Gigante, ``Magni petentes docta dicta Sironis,'' SIFC 83 (1990) 95-96.

46. D. Romano, ``L'ultima voce di Virgilio. Interpretazione di Catal. 14,'' Orpheus 9 (1988) 55-64.

Alimonti argues that the title, Appendix Virgiliana originated with Scaliger, the 16th century humanist. Thomas replaces corrupt bibulo with bibulum: ``what pleasure is being outside worn out with summer's heat, rather than lying at the couch drinking?'' Copa and Aetna retain their popularity and scholarly attraction. Gigante discovers subtle Catullan echoes in Catalepton 5 (Cat. c. 11, 10). Romano regards Catalepton as authentically Vergilian.


47. G. Barra, A. Quondam, G. Caravaggi, A. Rinaldi, ``Arcadia,'' EncVirg 1: 272-285.

48. Lisa Diana Carson, Song in Vergil's ``Eclogues'' Diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1990. DA 52 (1990) 154A.

49. F. Caviglia, ``Titiro,'' EncVirg 5: 196-201.

50. F. Della Corte, ``Le dieci ecloghe,'' EncVirg 1: 552-570.

51. Owen Lee, Death and Rebirth in Virgil's Arcadia. Albany, NY 1989. Rev: Clay, VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 145; O'Hara, CW 84 (1991) 241.

52. A. S. Nocito, ``La proposición parentética en las Eglogas de Virgilio,'' BUENOS AIRES 323-344.

53. Christine Perkell, ``The Eclogues: Vergilian Scholarship in the Nineties,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 43-55.

54. Stanislaw Stabryla, `` La Poésie et la Réalité (Essai sur les Bucoliques de Virgile),'' Eos 78 (1990) 173-181.

55. John Van Sickle, ``Response to a Georgics Reader Bemused by the Bucolics,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 64-70. (#53)

56. John Van Sickle, ``Bucoliche: 11 (La struttura),'' EncVirg 1: 549-552.

Perkell's contribution to the panel discussion sponsored by The Vergilian Society on ``Vergilian Scholarship in the Nineties'' at the A.P.A. Convention (29 December 1990) in San Francisco provides a sketch of work on the Bucolics by contemporary critics and treats topics of consequence for the future: inconclusiveness, allusion, ``the pastoral imagination,'' and irony. In her view: ``Specificity and other kinds of interpretive precision or attempts at orthodoxy will evolve to more open, inclusive and inconclusive, ironic, and dissolving readings.'' Cited texts are appended in a select bibliography. Van Sickle's extended response cites the importance of the breakthrough to a unifying conception of the Eclogue book and the call to newly concerted reading. S. V. Tracy's recent ``Commentary on Alpers,'' Arethusa 23 (1990) 49-57, is singled out as marking a ``new, productive and inexhaustible way of reading'' the Eclogues. Stabryla concentrates on Roman elements in the collection, factors that undermine the security of the pastoral domain.


57. G. Nussbaum, ``The Ending of Eclogue 1,'' LCM 15 (1990) 139-141.

58. G. H. Pages, ``Rusticidad e cortesiana en la primera égloga virgiliana,'' BUENOS AIRES 345-349.

59. Christine Perkell, ``On Eclogue 1. 79-83,'' TAPA 120 (1990) 171-181.

60. B. Andreatta, ``El mesianismo de la égloga cuarta,'' Revista Biblica 45 (1983) 109-122.

61. Hugo F. Bauzá, ``Una nueva consideracion del tiempo y de la cultura: a proposito de un passaje virgiliano, Buc. IV 22-25,'' Revista Biblica 45 (1983) 197-202.

62. M. D. Buisel, ``Sobre le identidad del puer de la IV Egloga,'' BUENOS AIRES 107-119.

63. L. Nicastri, ``La quarta ecloga di Virgilio e la profezia dell' Emmannuele,'' Vichiana 18 (1989) 221-271.

64. M. Pulbrook, ``Vergil's Fourth Eclogue and the Rebirth of Rome,'' in M. Pulbrook, Studies in Greek and Latin Authors (Maynooth 1987) 37-49.

65. M. Pulbrook, ``Octavian and Vergil's Fifth Eclogue,'' in M. Pulbrook, Studies in Greek and Latin Authors (Maynooth 1987) 214-234.

66. E. Courtney, ``Vergil's Sixth Eclogue,'' QUCC 34 (1990) 99-112.

67. M. A. Camuffo, ``Una propuesta de análisis de texto: la Egloga VII de Virgilio,'' BUENOS AIRES 133-142.

68. P. Domenicucci, ``I `Capretti' di Virgilio. Note sul catasterismo di Giulio Cesare,'' ASTRONOMIA 91-106.

69. Hugo F. Bauzá, ``La Bucolica X y la Taumaturgia de lo poetico,'' BUENOS AIRES 81-91.

70. B. Chwalek, ``Elegische Interpretationen zu Vergils zehnter Ekloge,'' Gymnasium 97 (1990) 304-320.

Perkell suggests that there is moral development and aesthetic responsiveness in Tityrus' final speech. The tragedy of Meliboeus' exile and his country's loss of his voice is somewhat mitigated by Tityrus' awakened sensibility. Pastoral poetry has a new voice in store. Courtney regards Eclogue 6 as mid-way between heroic epic and love elegy, and suggests that it occupies the area of deductum carmen. Domenicucci's article is concerned with the sidus Julium and its true location.


71. M. L. Acuña, ``La pietas virgiliana en las Geórgicas,'' BUENOS AIRES 49-58.

72. Ward W. Briggs, ``Response,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 71-73. (#77)

73. Martin Brooke, ``Virgil on (not) Knowing Nature,'' Omnibus 20 (September 1990) 4-7.

74. Joseph Farrell, Vergil's ``Georgics'' and the Traditions of Ancient Epic: The Art of Allusion in Literary History. New York & Oxford 1991.

75. Christine Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics. Berkeley & Los Angeles 1989. Rev: Fowler, G&R 37 (1990) 237-238; Galinsky, CW 84 (1990-1991) 242.

76. D. O. Ross, Jr., Virgil's Elements: Physics and Poetry in the ``Georgics.'' Princeton 1987. Rev: Feeney, TLS 4, 439 (April 29-May 5, 1988) 476.

77. Richard F. Thomas, ``Ideology, Influence, and Future Studies in the Georgics,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 64-70.

78. K. D. White, ``Agricoltura,'' EncVirg 1: 61-66.

Farrell's splendid new study contends that the pattern of allusion in the Georgics can be read as a Vergilian essay in literary history, one that renders more intelligible the course followed in his career--from Theocritus in the bucolic poems, to Hesiod, Aratus, Lucretius, and Homer in the Georgics, and finally to Apollonius and a somewhat different Homer in the epic. Acute observations on Vergil's intertextuality, his models and allusive style preface the author's remarks on Vergil's program of allusion in the Georgics, and the georgic in literary history. White's EncVirg entry is characteristically enlightening and authoritative. Thomas' contribution to The Vergilian Society's panel deals with larger issues of meaning and ideology, and with the question of ``influence,'' or, alternatively, ``allusion'' or ``reference,'' particularly in connection with Lucretius. Briggs responds with the suggestion that truly progressive future work on the Georgics should involve generic limitations in conjunction with new understanding of semiotic texture. He also pleads for renewed examination of the narrative influence of Homer on the Georgics ``to examine the similarities of artistic purpose in Vergil's explicit refashioning of Homeric material, mostly similes used in passages of didactic description, to elevate his didactic poem and observe the Lucretian distinction of honey and bitter medicine.'' (72).


79. R. A. B. Mynors, ed., Virgil: Georgics. With a preface by R. G. M. Nisbet. Oxford 1990. Rev: O'Hara, BMCR 2 (1991) 149-150.

80. Richard F. Thomas, ed. Virgil: Georgics. 2 vols. Cambridge 1988. Rev: Erren, Gnomon 62 (1990) 460-462; Gaisser, CW 84 (1991) 422, 493; Hardie, JRS 80 (1990) 207-209; Nisbet, CR 40 (1990) 260-263.

81. M. L. Delvigo, ``Clarissima mundi lumina: il proemio delle Geórgiche y una presunta variante d'autore,'' SIFC 83 (1990) 215-228.

82. E. Leonotti, ``Il primo `excursus' delle Georgiche (Georg. I 118-159),'' CCC 10 (1989) 363-403.

83. P. Van Minnen, ``Lentils from Pelusium: a note on Vergil's Georgics I 228,'' Mnemosyne 44 (1991) 167-169.

84. J. André, ``L'épidémiologie chez Virgile. De la physiologie et la tétralogie religieuse,'' BFML 15 (1987) 15-27.

85. C. Balavoine, ``Le miel et l'abeille. Hypothèses pour une lecture emblématique de la IVe Géorgique,'' BFML 15 (1987) 35-54.

86. M. Capano de Giribone, ``Análisis estructural del libro IV de las Geórgicas,'' BUEN0S AIRES 143-160.

87. M. A. Cervellera, ``Virgilio, Taygete e le Pleiadi,'' ASTRONOMIA 133-138.

88. G. B. Conte, ``Aristeo,'' EncVirg 1: 319-322.

89. F. Della Corte, ``Ape,'' EncVirg 1: 211-221.

90. E. Lefèvre, ``Die Laudes Galli in Vergil's Georgica'' WS 99 (l986) 183-192.

91. T. N. Habinek, ``Sacrifice, Society and Vergil's Ox-born Bees,'' CABINET 185-207 .

92. K. F. Kitchell, ``The Origin of Vergil's Myth of the Bugonia, DAIDALIKON 193-206.

93. G. Marasco, ``Corycius senex (Verg. Georg. 4, 127),'' RFIC 118 (1990) 402-07.

94. D. E. W. Wormell, ``Apicoltura,'' EncVirg 1: 214-216.

The late Sir Roger Mynors has bequeathed a magisterial edition and commentary on the Georgics with a useful appendix of Greek material (Eratosthenes, Aratus, and Aristotle) and three well-designed indices. Philological and scientific matters, agricultural factors and technology are uppermost; literary matters and argumentation, provocative ideas and personal interpretations of the poem appear to be somewhat muffled particularly when used alongside R. F. Thomas' new edition and markedly literary commentary. Nevertheless, Mynors' Georgics must be reckoned a durable masterpiece. Van Minnen equates Pelusiacus simply with ``Egyptian,'' with the common connotation of linen. Pelusium lies behind English ``blouse!'' Delvigo discusses the respective merits of numina over lumina (Georgics 1, 6). André returns to the Noric plague (Georgics 3, 473ff.) as something more than a medical record. Balavoine aligns the bee army of Georgic 4 with Roman arms in Egypt and suggests that the inspiration for epic rested in the success of Roman campaigns in Egypt. Cervel-lera examines Georgics 4.231-235 and accents Vergil's astronomical knowledge. Habinek explicates the political and ethical aspects of the Bugonia.


95. AA. VV., ``Eneide,'' EncVirg 2: 236-310.

96. W. S. Anderson, The Art of the Aeneid. Wauconda, IL 1989. (Reprint). Rev: Rexine, VERGILIUS 30 (1989) 149-150.

97. W. S. Anderson, ``Response,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 80-81 (# 103).

98. J. H. Bishop, The Cost of Power. Studies in the Aeneid of Virgil. Armidale, NSW 1988. Rev: S.L. Harrison, CR 40 (1990) 264-266.

99. Martin Brooke: ``Review Article: Developments in Virgilian Criticism,'' JACTR 8 (1990) 21-22.

100. M. D. Buisel de Sequeiros, ``Amor y politica en la Enéida,'' Argos 9-10 (1985-1986) 7-22.

101. Francis Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic. Cambridge & New York 1989. Rev: Gross, CW 84 (1991) 428-429; Hardie, JRS 80 (1990) 209-210; J. Miller, VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 137-139; D. O. Ross, CP 86 (1991) 76-81; Vessey, PVS 20 (1991) 88-90.

102. Cathy L. Callaway, The Oath in Epic Poetry. Diss., University of Washington 1990. DA 51 (1991) 3016.

103. J. A. Farrell, ``Which Aeneid in Whose Nineties?'', VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 74-80.

104. Don Fowler, ``Deviant Focalisation in Virgil's Aeneid,'' PCPS 36 (1990) 42-63.

105. K. W. Gransden, Virgil: The Aeneid. Landmarks of World Literature. Cambridge 1990. Rev: T.L. Calder, VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 134-135; Putnam, CW 84 (1991) 477.

106. M. A. Greenwood, ``Venus Intervenes: Five Episodes in the Aeneid'' LCM 14 (1989) 132-136.

107. Philip R. Hardie, Virgil's Aeneid: Cosmos and Imperium. Oxford 1986. Rev: Reckford, CP 85 (1990) 72-77.

108. J. B. Harmondsworth, The Idea of Epic. Berkeley & Los Angeles 1990.

109. N. Horsfall, ``The Aeneid and the Social Structure of Primitive Italy,'' Athenaeum 78 (1990) 523-527.

110. Susan Scheinberg Kristol, Labor and Fortune in Virgil's Aeneid. New York & London 1990. Rev: O'Hara, CW 84 (1990-1991) 241.

111. R. 0. A. M. Lyne, Further Voices in Vergil's Aeneid. Rev: Moskalew, VERGILIUS 35 (1989) 127-133; Squillante, BStudLat 17 (1987) 133.

112. C. J. Mackie, ``Nox erat . . . Sleep and Visions in the Aeneid,'' GLR 38 (1991) 59-61.

113. A. A. Millan Mendaz de Fraboschi, ``La Enéida como fuente de la historia,'' BUENOS AIRES 305-322.

114. A. J. Pfiffig, ``P. Vergilius Maro--Vates Etruscus. Die Bedeutung des Vergil und seiner Kommentatoren für die Etruskologie,'' ÖJh 58 (Beibl.) (1989) 177-194.

115. J.-L. Pomathios, Le pouvoir politique et sa représentation dans l'Énéide de Virgile. Bruxelles 1987. Rev: Orsini, BStudLat 18 (1988) 128-129.

116. T. Privitera, ``In margine alla cultura scientifica augustea: a proposito di un libro recente,'' ASTRONOMIA 121-132.

117. R. Rieks, Affekte und Struktur: Pathos als ein Form- und Wirkprinzip von Vergils Aeneis. Munich 1989.

118. F. Serpa, ed. Il punto su: Virgilio. Roma & Bari 1987. Rev: Polara, BStudLat 18 (1988) 127-128.

119. H.-P. Stahl, ``The Death of Turnus: Augustan Vergil and the Political Rival,'' Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and His Principate. Kurt A. Raaflaub, Mark Toher, eds. (Berkeley & Los Angeles 1990) 174-211.

120. A. Traina, ``Le troppe voci di Virgilio,'' RFIC 118 (1990) 490-499.

121. G. Vessey, ``Through a Glass Darkly--Reality and Virgil,'' PVS 20 (1991) 76-89.

122. Susan Ford Wiltshire, Public and Private in Vergil's Aeneid. Amherst, MA 1989. Rev: Brooke, JACTR 9 (1991) 26-27; W.C. Johnson, Clio 20 (1991) 190-191; Mack, AJP 111 (1990) 571-573; Perkell, VERGILIUS 36 (1991) 143-145.

123. A. J. Vaccaro, ``El nombre del héroe en la Enéida,'' BUENOS AIRES 439-447.

124. R. D. Williams, The Aeneid. London 1987. Rev: Hardie, JRS 80 (1990) 268.

Farrell's contribution to the Vergilian Society panel discusses trends and prospects in future studies of the Aeneid and pleads for changes in the present discourse about the epic. The problem, in Farrell's view, is that Vergilian studies have become too insular, have developed their own vocabulary and style without taking note of the critical discourse flowing over other texts of comparable importance. Bakhtin's concept of literary and cultural polyphony has barely affected the treatment of Vergilian ``voices.'' Bakhtin's plastic notion of dialogism may provide an avenue for ``understanding the different voices of the Aeneid not as irreconcilable points-of-view that force us . . . to choose between them, the model familiar from most Aeneid criticism, but as essential ingredients within a single work of art.'' (80). Anderson's response challenges Bakhtin's appreciation of Vergil's richly dialogic epic which fuses past and present ambiguously and which provides a continuous plurality of voices about the revolutionary political and cultural changes at the Republic's close. Fowler's article grapples effectively with instances in language where the focaliser and narrator are expected to coincide but the outcome is otherwise. He draws examples from several books of the epic: Aen. 1.19-22; 25-28; 589-593; 2.449-505; 554-557; 3.1-5; 4.365-370; 6.467-476; 8.720-723. Otis' launching of ``empathy'' into the mainstream of Vergilian criticism has been influential and Italian scholarship has assigned it a central role in its ideological debates that have involved La Penna and G. B. Conte inter alios during the past quarter-century. Fowler advocates that we ``preserve the challenge of the Aeneid.'' Switches of focalisation may serve to remove all moral challenge from the work; but Fowler's preference is for ``creating problems rather than solving them, making things more complex rather than less, confusing rather than clarifying.'' (58). Gransden's compact study of the epic will admirably serve the needs of undergraduate classes in Classical Studies and in Comparative Literature. Horsfall's study concludes that ``the poet was in no sense a scholarly specialist in toponymy, ethnography or geography, but the careful and scrupulous reader . . . will find some evidence for the poet's knowledge, and thus for the presence in his prose sources, of traces of onomastic detail on authentic pre-urban Italy.'' (527). Privitera's article reviews Philip Hardie's Cosmos and Imperium volume (1986). Rieks' study of Vergilian pathos extends to structural design and details. Stahl studies political aspects of the Aeneid, with attention to guilt and innocence in the characterization of Turnus and Aeneas. He argues that it is a misunderstanding to question passionate fighting and hot patriotism in Aeneas; he is a Super-Achilles capable of defeating the ``New Achilles'' of the Sibyl's prophecy (Aen. 6.89). Stahl demonstrates that Vergil's long-range design was to have the reader view Aeneas at the time of Pallas' death like a bereft father, and even more. In Stahl's view, a close reading of context and author's intervention suggests that Vergil viewed the final act as the only morally justified solution to his epic. Traina's article expresses impatience with the multiple ``voices'' of recent criticism but finds the contemporary emphasis on the ``point of view'' both stimulating and productive.


125. J. H. Hall, A. G. McKay, eds., Selections from Vergil's Aeneid: Books I, IV, VI: Dido and Aeneas. White Plains, NY 1988. Rev: Bender, CW 84 (1991) 237-238.

126. R. D. Brown, ``The Structural Function of the Song of Iopas,'' HSCP 93 (1990) 315-334.

127. A. G. McKay, ``Vergil's Aeolus Episode,'' DAIDALIKON 249-256.

128. J. J. O'Hara, ``Vergil's Acidalia Mater, and Venus Ericina in Catullus and Ovid,'' HSCP 93 (1990) 335-342.

129. G. A. Staley, ``Aeneas' First Act: 1, 180-194,'' CW 84 (1990) 25-38.

130. A. M. Bowie, ``The Death of Priam: Allegory and History in the Aeneid,'' CQ 40 (1990) 470-481.

131. C. Griffero, ``El fin de Priamo y su familia,'' BUENOS AIRES 209-215.

132. A. Traina, ``Ambiguità virgiliana: monstrum infelix (Aen. 2, 245) e alius Achilles (Aen. 6, 89),'' GHISELLI 547-555.

133. C. Formicola, ``Allusione e simbolismo in Virgilio (Aen. IV 143ss; 246ss.),'' Vichiana 18 (1989) 272-296.

134. C. Segal, ``Dido's Hesitation in Aeneid 4,'' CW 84 (1990) 1-12.

135. V. Casadio, ``Verg. Aen. V 816ff.,'' Museum Criticum 23-24 (1988-1990) 305-306.

136. A. E. Gordon, ``Vergil's Funeral Games for Anchises,'' CW 84 (1990) 46.

137. L. Deschamps, ``Virgile, Énéide, VI 453-454 et la lune obscure du mois,'' Kentron 4 (1988) 59-63.

138. S. Grebe, Die vergilische Heldenschau; Tradition und Fortwerke. Frankfurt am Main 1989.

139. G. Laudizi, ``Proxima sorte tenet lucis loca (Verg. Aen. 6, 761),'' BStudLat 20 (1990) 10-13.

140. M. C. J. Putnam, ``Virgil's Lapiths,'' CQ 40 (1990) 562-566.

141. F. Stok, Percorsi dell'esegesi virgiliana. Due ricerche sull'Eneide. Pisa 1988. Rev: Formicola, Vichiana 18 (1989) 383-388.

142. J. E. G. Zetzel, ``Romane memento: Justice and Judgment in Aeneid 6,'' TAPA 119 (1989) 263-284.

143. T. E. Kinsey, ``Virgil, Aeneid viii, 497-504,'' RBPh 88 (1990) 497-504.

144. J. G. A. M. Lenssen, ``Hercules exempli gratia. De Hercules-Cacus-episode in Vergilius, Aeneis 8, 185-305,'' Lampas 23 (1990) 50-73.

145. Christine Renaud, Studies in the Eighth Book of the Aeneid. Diss., University of Texas at Austin, 1990.

146. D. Sansone, ``Cacus and the Cyclops. An Addendum,'' Mnemosyne 44 (1991) 171.

147. H. Walter, ``Aeneas am Scheidewege (Verg. Aen. 8, 362-365),'' in Memores Tui. Studi di letteratura classica ed umanistica in onore di Marcello Vitaletti. Sesto Prete, ed. (Sassoferrato, 1990) 197-209.

148. A. J. Woodman, ``Virgil the Historian: Aeneid 8.626-62 and Livy,'' BRINK STUDIES 132-145.

149. Elaine Fantham, ``Nymphas . . . e navibus esse. Decorum and Poetic Fiction in Aeneid 9, 77-122, and 10, 215-59,'' CP 85 (1990) 102-119.

150. G. Ramires, ``L'Eurialo di Virgilio in un' interpretazione di Servio,'' AAPel 63 (1987) 341-349.

151. R. H. Jordan, ed., Virgil Aeneid X. With introduction, notes, and vocabulary. Bristol 1990.

152. Maria Alessio, Studies in Vergil, ``Aeneid'' Eleven. Diss., McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., 1991.

Brown argues that Vergil has borrowed from Georgics 2 not only the essential content of Iopas' song but also its antithetical relationship to the immediately ensuing verses. Iopas' song contrasts ironically with Dido's emotional state and her metaphorical drunkenness reveals a private obsession. McKay treats several aspects of the Aeolus episode and suggests links with Horace, Odes 1.14. O'Hara accents etymological wordplay in Aen. 1.715-722. Staley highlights Aeneas' initial hunt; the creation of a civilized city involves Aeneas in actions which link him with ``Junonian'' natural violence, with storm and hunting. Bowie's remarks on Vergil's allegorical techniques are instructive. Segal suggests that when Dido crosses the threshold she leaves behind, reluctantly, one future for another, and one story-pattern (the self-sufficient queen) for another (the woman abandoned in love). Gordon imagines that Vergil's witnessing naval competitions in the Bay of Naples by the Misenate marines suggested the racing event off Sicilian Trapani. Laudizi interprets lucis (Aen. 6.761) as genitive singular rather than dative plural: Servius has been given by lot the place closest ``to the woods.'' Stok's exhaustive discussion of Aen. 6.847-853 and 12.397 is exemplary. Kinsey corrects R. D. Williams on Aen. 8.503-504. Sansone demonstrates that the Homeric Polyphemus episode (Od. 9) was the paradigm for Vergil's Cacus-Hercules episode, with its distinctive ambivalence and complexities. Woodman argues that Vergil gave his description of Aeneas' shield an extra dimension by linking his pictorial review to Livy' historiographical account. Fantham's comments on Vergilian metamorphosis fuel reflection on larger implications of transformations.


153. G. Arrigoni, F. Canciana, ``Camilla,'' EncVirg 1: 629-631.

154. AA.VV., ``Didone,'' EncVirg 2: 48-63.

155. Hugo F. Bauzá, ``Ninfe,'' EncVirg 3: 730-736.

156. Laura Bocciolini Palagi, ``Enea come Orfeo,'' Maia 42 (1990) 133-150.

157. D. Briquel, ``A propos d'une inscription redécouverte au Louvre: remarques sur la tradition relative à Mézence,'' REL 67 (1989) 78-92.

158. G. Calboli, ``Oratores,'' EncVirg 3: 869-872.

159. A. J. Callinikos, ``Do Sleeping Heroes Dream?'', Epistula Zimbabweana 24 (1990) 17-22.

160. F. Caviglia, ``Virbio,'' EncVirg 5: 553-558.

161. G. B. Conte, ``Elena,'' EncVirg 2: 190-193.

162. V. Cristobal, ``Camila: genesis, funcion y tradicion de un personaje virgiliano,'' EClas 31 (1988) 43-61.

163. G. D'Anna, ``Anna,'' EncVirg 1: 178-182.

164. E. Flores, F. Canciani, ``Anchises,'' EncVirg 1: 158-162.

165. D. Gagliardi, ``La preghiera' di Turno ad Aen. X 668-679 (considerazione eterodosse sulla Innenwelt del personaggio,'' Vichiana 17 (1988) 109-119.

166. N. Horsfall, ``Numano Remulo,'' EncVirg 3: 778-779.

167. T. E. Kinsey, ``Iopas,'' EncVirg 3: 9-10.

168. W. K. Lacey, ``Lavinia,'' EncVirg 3: 147-149.

169. A. La Penna, ``Mezenzio,'' EncVirg 3: 510-515.

170. A. La Penna, ``Amata,'' EncVirg 1: 125-128.

171. A. La Penna, ``Drance,'' EncVirg 2: 138-140.

172. C. J. Mackie, The Characterisation of Aeneas. Edinburgh 1988. Rev: Galinsky, VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 129-132.

173. C. J. Mackie, ``Turnus and his Ancestors,'' CQ 41 (1991) 261-265.

174. A. M. Mansilla, ``Enèas un personaje injustamente postergado,'' BUENOS AIRES 273-284.

175. C. B. Pascal, ``The Dubious Devotion of Turnus,'' TAPA 120 (1990) 251-268.

176. V. J. Rosivach, F. Piccirillo, ``Latino,'' EncVirg 3: 131-135.

177. R. Schilling, ``Venilia,'' EncVirg 5: 486-487.

178. E. Simon, F. Piccirillo, ``Laocoonte,'' EncVirg 3: 113-118.

179. E. Simon, ``Dedalo,'' EncVirg 2: 12-14.

180. F. Stok, ``Le guance di Turno,'' Seminari Sassaresi (Sassari) 1989, 29-52.

181. Mihoko Suzuki, Metamorphoses of Helen: Authority, Difference and The Epic. Ithaca 1989. Rev: Colakis, CW 84 (1991) 238.

182. A. Traina, ``Turno,'' EncVirg 5: 324-336.

The Enciclopedia entries are fundamental to the study of Vergilian characters. Briquel's article examines 7th century B.C. epigraphical material which refers to a Caeretan Mezentius. Arrigoni and Cristobal provide complementary studies of Vergil's warrior maid. Stahl's critical assessment of the characterization of Aeneas and Turnus also provides fresh impetus to their evaluation (#119). Pascal treats Turnus' profession of devotio in a larger context of legend and history. Suzuki's study of the changing characterization of Helen includes the Aeneid.


183. L. Hardwicke, ``Ancient Amazons--Heroes, Outsiders or Women?'', G&R 37 (1990) 14-35.

184. N. Horsfall, ``La leggenda di Enea,'' EncVirg 2: 221-229.

185. M. Sordi, Il mito troiano e l'eredità di Roma. Milano 1989. Rev: Aignor-Foresti, Gnomon 62 (1990) 654-666.

186. F. Wathelet, Les Troyens de l'Iliade: Mythe et Histoire. Paris 1989.

Hardwicke's wide-ranging article offers useful background to Vergil's Camilla and Diana's thiasos. Horsfall's didactic entry on the Aeneas legend is valuable.


187. Margherita Cancellieri, ``Ausoni, Ausonia,'' EncVirg 1: 420-422.

188. F. Castagnoli, ``Albunea,'' EncVirg 1: 84-85.

189. F. Castagnoli, ``Lavinio,'' EncVirg 3: 149-153.

190. F. Castagnoli, ``Troia nel Lazio,'' EncVirg 5: 289-290.

191. F. Castagnoli, R. Peroni, ``Lazio,'' EncVirg 3: 159-164.

192. A. Coppola, ``Benevento e Argirippa: Pirro e la leggenda di Diomede,'' Athenaeum 78 (1990) 527-531.

193. G. D'Anna, F. Catagnoli, ``Alba Longa,'' EncVirg 1: 77-80.

194. A. De Franciscis, ``Cuma,'' EncVirg 1: 951-954.

195. N. Horsfall, ``Laurentes,'' EncVirg 3: 141-144.

196. G. Jackson, E. Greco, ``Miseno,'' EncVirg 3: 541-546.

197. M. Lossau, E. Greco, ``Palinuro,'' EncVirg 3: 936-939.

198. D. Musti, G. A. Mansuelli, A. Bernardi, ``Italia,'' EncVirg 3: 34-50.

199. M. Nafissi, ``Volsci,'' EncVirg 5: 617-619.

200. E. Paoletta, Virgilio e la Daunia. Napoli 1982. Rev: Lombardi, BStudLat 18 (1988) 129-130.

201. A. Russi, ``Nola,'' EncVirg 3: 749-752.

202. E. Tortorici, ``Ardea,'' EncVirg 1: 299-302.

203. P. Tozzi, ``Andes,'' EncVirg 1: 164-166.

204. P. Tozzi, A. M. Tammasia, E. Faccioli, F. Piccirillo, ``Mantova,'' EncVirg 3: 350-358.

The scholarly notices on geography and topography in the Enciclopedia are among the best available. Castagnoli is in the vanguard, with Cancellieri, D'Anna, De Franciscis, Horsfall, Lossau and Tozzi as important contributors.


205. F. C. Albertson, ``The Basilica Aemilia Frieze: Religion and Politics in Late Republican Rome,'' Latomus 49 (1991) 801-815.

206. B. Andreae, Laokoon und die Gründung Roms. Mainz 1988. Rev: Galinsky, AJA 94 (1990) 164-165.

207. A. Gonzalez Blanco, M. Mayer Olive, A. U. Stylow (eds.), La curva negra e Fortuna (Murcia) y sus tituli picti. Un santuario de epoca romana (Homenaje Bigorra). Antiquedad y Cristianismo IV. Murcia 1987.

208. F. Canciani, ``Tabulae Iliacae,'' EncVirg 5: 3-6.

209. E. W. Leach, The Rhetoric of Space: Literary and Artistic Representations of Landscape in Republican and Augustan Rome. Princeton 1988. Rev: Bergmann, AJA 95 (1991) 179-181; Hardie, CR 40 (1990) 306-307; Laidlaw, AJP 111 (1990) 115-117.

210. E. Lefèvre, Das Bild-Programm des ApolloTempels auf dem Palatin. Konstanz 1989. Rev: Hardie, CR 40 (1990) 520; von Heintze, Gymnasium 98 (1991) 84-85.

211. Connie Lynn Rodriguez, Poetry and Power; Studies in Augustan Monuments and the Poets of the Augustan Age. Diss., The Johns Hopkins University, 1990. DA 51 (1990) 498A.

212. E. Simon, Kunst und Leben in Rom und die Zeitwende. Munich 1986. Rev: Brilliant, ABull 62 (1990) 327-330.

213. T. Tracy, ``Who Stands Behind Aeneas on the Ara Pacis?'', DAIDALIKON 375-396.

214. H. von Heintze, ``Ritratti antichi,'' EncVirg 5: 98-102.

215. P. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, trans. Alan Shapiro. Ann Arbor, MI 1988. Rev: Dunbabin, EMC 34 (1990) 308-311.

Albertson suggests a political parody of Cicero in the Basilica Aemilia relief of an elderly man engaged in constructing Rome's wall. The implications for Vergil's depiction of Drances are intriguing. Bianco et al., provide critical discussion and illustration of a series of rock-face painted graffiti citing Vergil's lines on the African cave of the nymphs (Aen. 1.167-169) in a cave-sanctuary context. Lefèvre's researches into the sculptural program of the Temple of the Palatine Triad has implications for Vergil's reference. Tracy argues that Venus may stand behind Aeneas on the Altar of Augustan Peace. Von Heintze provides an overall perspective on the vexed question of the Vergil portrait.


216. G. Arrigoni, ``Cibele,'' EncVirg 1: 770-774.

217. A. M. Battegazzore, ``Numen,'' EncVirg 3: 779-782.

218. G. B. Bronzini, ``Negromanzia,'' EncVirg 3: 683-687.

219. A. Capizzi, ``Teodicea,'' EncVirg 5: 118-122.

220. S. D'Elia, ``Alcuni aspetti fondamentali dell'escatologia greco-romana,'' in Morte e Immoralità, S. Felici, ed. (Rome 1985) 13-28.

221. P. Grimal, ``Virgile en face de la philosophie,'' BUENOS AIRES 3-20.

222. E. Henry, The Vigour of Prophecy: A Study of Virgil's Aeneid. Bristol 1989. Rev: Hardie, CR 40 (1990) 263-264; Nash, JACTR 9 (1991) 25-26; Farrell, BMCR 1 (1990) 62-65.

223. A. G. McKay, ``Apollo,'' EncVirg 1: 220-222.

224. James J. O'Hara, Death and the Optimistic Prophecy in Vergil's Aeneid. Princeton 1990. Rev: Horsfall, VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 133-134; Farrell, BMCR 1 (1990) 66-68.

225. H. W. Parke, Sibyl and Sibylline Prophecy in Classical Antiquity, B. C. McGing, ed., London & New York 1988. Rev: Clarke, EMC 34 (1990) 459-462; Weigel, CW 84 (1990-1991) 239.

226. F. Piccirillo, ``Venere,'' EncVirg 5: 478-484.

227. John Pinsent, ``Roman Spirituality,'' in Classical Mediterranean Spirituality, A. Armstrong, ed. (New York 1986) 154-194.

228. J. Sieron, ``De Vergilio philosopho,'' Meander 43 (1988) 307-329.

229. Eva Stehle, ``Venus, Cybele, and the Sabine Women: The Roman Construction of Female Sexuality,'' Helios 16 (1989) 143-164.

230. W. Suerbaum, ``Muse,'' EncVirg 3: 625-641.

231. P. S. Zanetti, ``Morte,'' EncVirg 3: 589-601.

Henry and O'Hara provide complementary studies that are well designed to excite fresh interest in an undernourished area of Vergilian studies.


232. V. Buchheit, ``Der frühe Vergil und Oktavian,'' SO 65 (1990) 53-62.

233. S. Costanza, ``Critiche antivirgiliane nell'età augustea,'' GHISELLI 103-139.

234. G. D'Anna, ``L'età augustea nel giudizio di Virgilio,'' in AA.VV., L'età augustea vista dai contemporanei e nel giudizio dei posteri. Accad. Nazion. Virgiliana (Mantova, 1988) 39-59.

235. S. D'Elia, ``Virgilio e Augusto,'' AUGUSTEI 23-53.

236. Jasper Griffin, ``Virgil,'' in The Oxford History of the Classical World, J. Boardman, J. Griffin, O. Murray, eds., (Oxford 1986) 616-635.

237. F. Hubeñák, ``La restauracion augustea en Virgilio y su obra,'' BUENOS AIRES 217-236.

238. S. Koster, ``Vergil und Augustus,'' in Pratum Saraviense. Festgabe für Peter Steinmetz, W. Görler, S. Koster, eds. (Stuttgart 1990) 127-146.

239. A. La Penna, ``Mecenate,'' EncVirg 3: 410-414.

240. R. O. A. M. Lyne, ``Augustan Poetry and Society,'' in The Oxford History of the Classical World, J. Boardman, J. Griffin, O. Murray, eds. (Oxford 1986) 592-615.

241. M. S. Santirocco, ``Poet and Patron in Ancient Rome,'' Book Forum 6 (1982) 56-62.

242. Peter White, ``Julius Caesar in Augustan Rome,'' Phoenix 42 (1988) 334-356.

White's article on the posthumous reputation of Caesar includes Vergil's notices (345-351).


243. Gregson Davis, ``Ingenii cumba? Literary aporia and the Rhetoric of Horace's O navis referent (C. 1, 14),'' RhM 132 (1989) 331-345.

244. G. D'Anna, ``Le figure femminili in Virgilio e in Orazio,'' DONNA 157-167.

245. F. Della Corte, ``Virgilio e Orazio,'' C&S 27 (1988) 47-55.

246. F. Della Corte, ``Orazio,'' EncVirg 3: 872-876.

247. A. Grilli, ``Virgilio e Orazio,'' AUGUSTEI 69-86.

248. R. O. A. M. Lyne, ``Prudence, Politics and Image: Horace in the Thirties B.C., PCA 87 (1990) 14-17.

249. G. Radke, ``Topographische Betrachtungen zum Iter Brundisinum des Horaz,'' RhM 132 (1989) 54-72.

250. F. Vazqez Muñeva, ``La montagna di Virgilio y Orazio,'' Helmantica 39 (1988) 153-173.

251. R. J. Ball, ``Tibullo,'' EncVirg 5: 170-172.

252. G. D'Anna, ``Virgilio e Tibullo,'' AUGUSTEI 87-110.

253. V. Gigante Lanzara, ``Virgilio e Properzio,'' AUGUSTEI 111-176.

254. O. N. Selgado, ``Quirinus (E. I 292) y Mavortius en Virgilio y en Propercio,'' BUENOS AIRES 383-388.

255. B. W. Boyd, ``Non hortamine longo: an Ovidian `correction' of Virgil,'' AJP 111 (1990) 82-85.

256. A. Salvatore, ``Virgilio e Ovidio elegiaco,'' AUGUSTEI 177-202.

257. R. Schilling, ``Virgilio e Ovidio poeta dei Fasti,'' AUGUSTEI 221-255.

258. Smith, Riggs Alden, Allusions of Grandeur; Studies in the Intertextuality of the `Metamorphoses' and the `Aeneid'. Diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1990. DA 51 (1990) 4110A.

259. J. B. Solodow, ``Persistence of Vergilian Memories,'' LCM 14 (1989) 119-121.

260. M. von Albrecht, ``Ovidio,'' EncVirg 3: 907-909.

261. M. von Albrecht, ``Virgilio e le Metamorfosi ovidiane,'' AUGUSTEI 203-219.

262. C. U. Merriam, ``The New Gallus Revisited,'' Latomus 49 (1990) 443-452.

263. A. Michel, ``Virgilio e Cornelio Gallo,'' AUGUSTEI 55-68.

264. J. D. Noonan, ``Re-Examining the Text and Meaning of the Gallus Fragment,'' Latomus 50 (1991) 118-123.

265. P. V. Cova, Il Poeta Vario. Milano 1989. Rev: Bardon, Latomus 49 (1990) 867-68; Jocelyn, Gnomon 62 (1990) 596-600; Rocca, Maia 42 (1990) 207-208; Cozzolino, BStudLat 20 (1990) 116-117.

266. P. V. Cova, ``Vario Rufo,'' EncVirg 5: 441-443.

267. A. Traglia, ``Lucio Vario Rufo: poeta epico,'' CS 25 (1986) 60-67.

268. M. Gigante, ``La brigata virgiliana ad Ercolano,'' AUGUSTEI 7-22.

Davis includes Georgics 2.39-46 in his study of Horace's `poetic' sea voyage reflecting upon Vergil's epic enterprise. Muñeva assembles mountainous landscapes and ponders their poetic resonances. Radke traces the route of the diplomatic mission of 37 B.C. which included Horace and Vergil in the journey. Boyd shows how Ovid (Met. 1.274-282) transforms and corrects Aen. 1.124-141. Solodow discovers Vergilian echoes in Ovid, Met. 11.492-493, and Seneca the Younger, NQ 3.27,14. Gallus and Varius Rufus occupy the limelight. Merriam extols the Qasr Ibrim papyrus fragment as professional material and concrete evidence of Gallus as elegist, but discounts Gallus as among the originators of love-elegy at Rome. Noonan provides a conjectural (restored) text for the exchange of songs implied by the papyrus fragment. Varius is treated to a comprehensive study by Cova, countered in part by Jocelyn. Gigante provides a welcome account of the literary côterie of the Neapolitan shores, with particular reference to Philodemus and Vergil, and to recent exciting readings of recovered carbonized fragments from the Villa of the Papyri (L. Calpurnius Piso?) where excavations are once again in progress.


269. P. Grimal, ``Virgilio e Livio,'' AUGUSTEI 257-278.

270. P. G. Walsh, ``Livio,'' EncVirg 3: 236-239.



271. F. Capponi, ``Appunti sulla tecnica virgiliana del contrasto,'' GIF 40 (1988) 77-85.

272. P. A. Cavallero, M. E. Mungo, ``Las figuras iniciátas en la Eneida,'' BUENOS AIRES 161-173.

273. G. Calboli, ``Tropi,'' EncVirg 5: 297-304.

274. L. Ceccarelli, L'alliterazione e vocale interposta variabile in Virgilio. L'Aquila/Roma 1986. Rev: Cupaiuolo, BStudLat 17 (1987) 133-134.

275. Edoardo Coleiro, ``Omphalos,'' EncVirg 3: 846-849.

276. F. Della Corte, ``Allegoria,'' EncVirg 1: 105-111.

277. F. Della Corte, ``Una celebre aposiopesi,'' GHISELLI 189-193.

278. M. Dolch, ``Ambivalenza,'' EncVirg 1: 129-132.

279. O. M. Ewald, ``Virgilian End Rhymes (Geo. 1. 393-423),'' HSCP 93 (1990) 311-313.

280. M. Fruyt, ``Le rôle de la métaphore et de la métonymie en latin: style, lexique, grammaire,'' REL 67 (1989) 236-257.

281. N. Horsfall, ``Anacronismi,'' EncVirg 3: 24-25.

282. R. O. A. M. Lyne, Words and the Poet. Characteristic Techniques of Style in Vergil's Aeneid. Oxford 1989. Rev: Farrell, VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 140-142; Hill, G&R 38 (1990) 227-229; Kenney, JRS 870 (1990) 211; Mayer, JACTR 9 (1991) 27; Michels, BMCR 2 (1991) 141-145.

283. R. G. M. Nisbet, ``The Style of Virgil's Eclogues'' PVS 20 (1991) 1-14.

284. J. J. O'Hara, ``Etymological Wordplay in Apollonius of Rhodes, Aeneid 3, and Georgics 1,'' Phoenix 44 (1990) 370-376.

285. G. Pascucci, ``Neologismo,'' EncVirg 3: 696-701.

286. G. Petrone, ``Locus amoenus/locus horridus: due modi di pensare il bosco,'' Aufidus 5 (1988) 3-18.

287. U. Rapallo, ``Onomatopea,'' EncVirg 3: 853-855.

288. D. Scargliarini Corlaita, ``Modi di rappresentazione dell'architettura in Virgilio,'' GHISELLI 497-506.

289. M. Scarsi, ``Onomastica,'' EncVirg 3: 849-853.

290. Marisa Squillante Saccone, ``Parentesi,'' EncVirg 3: 972-974.

291. Viola G. Stephens, ``Like a Wolf on the Fold: Animal Imagery in Vergil,'' ICS 15 (1990) 107-130.

292. S. Tieffemberg, ``El subcampo semantico verbal de la muerte en los doce libros de la Eneida,'' Argos 9-10 (1985-1986) 119-136.

293. L. Zoicas, ``Poétique des éléments dans l'Énéide,'' StudClas 226 (1988) 5-10.

Capponi studies contrasts in the regatta of Aen. 5. Della Corte studies aposiopesis at Aen. 1.135 (quos ego . . . sed motos). Ewald highlights a striking pattern of end-rhyming. Fruyt's article includes a comprehensive bibliography on metaphor and metonymy. Nisbet concentrates on passages where Vergil's bucolic idiosyncrasy appears in its most undiluted form. The final verses of Ecl. 10 are particularly characteristic for they contain repetition, epanalepsis, a delicate oxymoron, a soft feminine caesura and typical bucolic diaeresis, parenthesis, artificial distribution of words, a diminutive, and a touch of whimsy--with the implication that the audience, like the animals, have had their fill! Nisbet ends his inquest into the bucolic signature-tune with the comment: ``That is what [the bucolic style] is like''(14). O'Hara notes that Vergil's etymological wordplay (Aen. 3.209-213, 225-228, and Georg. 1.316-334) is modelled on etymological aetiologies in the Argonautica. Scargliarini argues that Vergil's architectural vignettes are more allusive than descriptive. Stephens tracks animal imagery, suffering and predatory, and the victims of attack . Her comprehensive review of animal (and human) furor and suffering is valuable, not least because she demonstrates that the animal imagery is used ``to express a perception of man as essentially and irremediably flawed and to suggest from his defective nature come his suffering and failure'' (108).


294. A. M. Battegazzore, ``Fuoco,'' EncVirg 2: 611-618.

295. G. Brugnoli, R. Scarcia, ``Numerologia,'' EncVirg 3: 788-793.

296. Sara Strother Bunting, Rhetorical Language in Ovid and Vergil. Diss., University of Chicago, 1990. DA 51 (1990) 1217A-1218A.

297. Cathy L. Callaway, The Oath in Epic Poetry. Diss., University of Washington, 1990. DA 51 (1991) 3061A.

298. G. Capponi, ``Uccelli,'' EncVirg 5: 347-353.

299. G. Cupaiuolo, ``Assonanza e rima,'' EncVirg 1: 375-377.

300. P. Heuzé, ``Miratur--Sur quelques nuances de l'admiration virgilienne,'' Cahiers des Études Anciennes 24, Vol.2 (Lucien Finette, ed.) (Laval, Quebec 1990) 397-403.

301. M. Leeune, ``Notes de linguistique italique: Mézence, d'un zéta à l'autre,'' REL 66 (1988) 50-54.

302. A. Luisi, ``Significato politica di `confine' in Orazio e Virgilio,'' InvLuc 9 (1987) 89-103.

303. C. Weber, ``Some Double Entendres in Ovid and Vergil,'' CP 85 (1990) 209-214.

304. N. Zorzetti, ``Numerali,'' EncVirg 3: 782-788.

Heuzé argues that the nature of admiration in Vergil arises chiefly from what attracts the viewer's notice. Vergil tends to move from wonder to commiseratio, and the obect of admiration is most commonly connected with the city--Troy, Carthage, and Rome. Weber deals with Aen. 4.80-83, 388-392 and 7.328-329.


305. S. J. Harrison, ``Discordia Taetra: The History of a Hexameter-Ending,'' CQ 41 (1991) 138-149.

306. H. H. Huxley, ``Mathematic Patterns in Ovid's Elegiac Couplets,'' JACTR 7 (1990) 16-19.

307. G. Mohler, Hexameterstudien zu Lukrez, Vergil, Horaz, Ovid, Lukan, Silius Italicus und der Ilias Latina. Frankfurt am Main 1989.


308. E. M. Bagnasco, ``La Presencia de Polifemo en la Odiséa y en la Eneida,'' BUENOS AIRES 71-79.

309. R.D. Brown, ``The Homeric Background to a Vergilian Repetition (Aeneid 1.745 = 3.516),'' AJP 111 (1990) 182-186.

310. G. D'Ippolito, ``Odissea,'' EncVirg 3: 821-826.

311. A. La Penna, ``Gli archetipi epici di Camilla,'' Maia 40 (1988) 228-250.

312. S. H. Lonsdale, ``Simile and Ecphrasis in Homer and Virgil: The Poet as Craftsman and Choreographer,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1980) 7-30.

313. J. J. O'Hara, ``Homer, Hesiod, Apollonius and Neritos Ardua at Aeneid 3. 271,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 31-34.

314. D. G. Scamarella, ``El viaje en la Eneida y en la Odisea,'' BUENOS AIRES 389-400.

315. C. Vedoya de Guillen, ``Cuatro protasis epicas,'' BUENOS AIRES 449-460.

316. E. C. Kopff, ``Troiano, ciclo,'' EncVirg 5: 293-294.

317. C. A. Disandro, Vergili regeneratio lyrica. La Plata 1987.

318. P. Hardie, ``The Aeneid and the Oresteia,' PVS 20 (1991) 29-45.

319. J. Zaranka, ``Los ecos de la Troyanas de Euripides en el segundo canto de la Eneida,'' BUENOS AIRES 473-480.

320. T. Miguet, ``Sept et cercle dans Virgile,'' BFLM 15 (1987) 135-149.

321. L. Alfonsi, ``Neoterismo,'' EncVirg 3: 701-705.

322. W. Clausen, Virgil's Aeneid and the Tradition of Hellenistic Poetry. Berkeley & Los Angeles 1987. Rev: Deremetz, Latomus 49 (1990) 493-495; Traina, RFIC 118 (1990) 211-214; Horsfall, BStudLat 18 (1988) 124-127.

323. Barbara Hughes Fowler, The Hellenistic Aesthetic. Madison 1989. Rev: Fowler, G&R 37 (1990) 235-237; Hopkinson, G&R 37 (1990) 84; Pollitt, AJA 95 (1991) 176-177; Thomas, VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 151-154.

324. Damien Nelis, The Aeneid and the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius. Diss., Belfast 1988.

325. R. B. Lloyd, ``Terenzio,'' EncVirg 5: 128-129.

326. F. Charpin, ``Lucilio,'' EncVirg 3: 260-263.

327. R. Scarcia, ``Partenio di Nicea,'' EncVirg 3: 987-988.

328. M. Bollack, G. Castelli, ``Lucrezio,'' EncVirg 3: 263-271.

329. N. Horsfall, ``Varrone: L'Opera varroniana e l'Eneide,'' EncVirg 5: 447-450.

330. A. Salvatore, ``Varrone ( M. Terentius Varro Reatinus),'' EncVirg 5: 444-441.

331. G. Broccia, ``Un frammento di Furio Anziate e un verso di Virgilio,'' RFIC 118 (1990) 43-44.

332. A. Michel, ``Catulle dans les Bucoliques de Virgile: histoire, philosophie, poétique,'' REL 67 (1989) 140-148.

Homer continues to dominate recent study of influences and patterns, but fresh departures in Homeric scholarship have yet to be integrated into the subject in order to assess the impact more effectively. Lonsdale's treatment of simile and ecphrasis offers new insights into both devices in both epic poets. O'Hara's searching analysis of Aen. 3.270-273 reveals traces of Homer's epics, Hesiod and Apollonius, and underscores Vergil's undoubted mastery of both archaic and Alexandrian epic. Hardie treats the cosmic afflatus in Aeschylus' opera and provides a valuable comparison of the Aeneid and Oresteia. His article will no doubt excite scholars to deliberate along comparable lines with works of Sophocles and Euripides in mind. Miguet's article reminds readers of Platonic influence (especially Timaeus) on Vergil's creative genius.


333. N. Görler, ``Obtrectatores,'' EncVirg 3: 807-813.

334. G. Senis, ``Parodie di Virgilio,'' EncVirg 3: 984-986.

335. V. Langholf, ``Vergil-Allegorese in den Bucolica des Calpurnius Siculus,'' RhM 133 (1990) 350-370.

336. M. M. Winkler, ``A Virgilian Echo ln Juvenal's Eleventh Satire,'' RhM 133 (1990) 375-378.

337. E. Narducci, ``Lucano,'' EncVirg 3: 257-260.

338. D. P. Kubiak, ``Cornelia and Dido (Lucan 9.174-9),'' CR 40 (1990) 577.

339. J. J. Bodoh, ``Reading Laokoon in Vergil and Petronius,'' AC 56 (1987) 269-274.

340. M. Citroni, ``Marziale,'' EncVirg 3: 396-400.

341. R. Johne, ``Dido und Charikleia: Zur Gestaltung der Frau bei Vergil und im griechischen Liebesroman,'' Eirene 24 (1987) 21-33.

342. P. Hardie, ``Flavian Epicists on Virgil's Epic Technique,'' Ramus 18 (1989) 3-20.

343. G. Laudizi, Silio Italico: Il passato tra mito e restaurazione etica. Galatina 1989. Rev: Dewar, Phoenix 44 (1990) 292-294.

344. A. Michel, ``Publio Cornelio Tacito,'' EncVirg 5: 14-18.

345. R. Guerrini, ``Tito al santuario Pafio e il ricordo di Enea (Tac. Hist. II. 4),'' BStudLat 17 (1987) 28-34.

346. E. Finkelpearl, ``Psyche, Aeneas, and an Ass: Apuleius Metamorphoses 6.10-6.21,'' TAPA 120 (1990) 333-348.

347. S. A. Frangoulidis, Epic Imitation in the ``Metamorphoses'' of Apuleius. Diss., The Ohio State University, 1990. DA 51 (1990) 2370A.

348. D. Najock, ``A Statistical Comparison of Vocabulary in the Pervigilium Veneris and the Eclogues of Vergil,'' RELO 21 (1985) 185-201.

349. C. Ratkowitsch, ``Vergils Seesturm bei Iuvencus und Sedulius,'' JbAC (1986) 40-58.

350. P. Monat, ``Lattanzo,'' EncVirg 3: 137-138.

351. V. Buchheit, ``Cicero inspiratus--Vergilius propheta? Zur Wertung paganer Autoren bei Laktanz,'' Hermes 118 (1990) 357-372.

352. C. Tibiletti, ``Tertulliano,'' EncVirg 5: 140-142.

353. G. Solimano, Epistula Didonis ad Aeneam. Introduction, text, translation, and commentary. Geneva 1988.

354. E. Caballero de del Sastre, ``Fabius Planciades Fulgentius, De Continentia Vergiliana, alegoria y retorica,'' BUENOS AIRES 121-131.

355. N. Marinone, ``Macrobio,'' EncVirg 3: 299-304.

356. A. J. Schroder, ``Del Eliseo de Virgilio al Paraiso de Prudencio,'' BUENOS AIRES 401-416.

357. E. Heck, ``Vestrum est--poeta noster. Von der Geringschätzung Vergils zu seiner Aneignung in der frühchristlichen lateinischen Apologetik,'' MH 47 (1990) 102-120.

358. J.-M. Poinsotte, ``Les juifs dans les centons latins chrétiens,'' RecAug 21 (1986 85-116.

359. R. Edwards, ``The Heritage of Fulgentius,'' MIDDLE AGES 141-151.

360. J. Fontaine, ``Isidoro di Siviglia,'' EncVirg 3: 26-28.

361. Roberta Strati, ``Giuliano di Toledo,'' EncVirg 2: 749-751.

362. Roberta Strati, ``Presenze virgiliane in Giuliano di Toledo,'' Maia 38 (1986) 41-50.

363. R. Kaster, The Tradition of the Text of the Aeneid in the Ninth Century. New York 1990.

364. V. Cristobal, ``Tempestades epicas,'' CIF 14 (1988) 125-18.

365. D. C. Feeney, ``Epic Hero and Epic Fable,'' CompLit 38 (1986) 137-158.

Görler's exhaustive entry on Vergil's obtrectatores offers provocative and instructive comments. Winkler argues that Vergil's epic underlies Satire 11, culminating at vv. 180-181. Kubiak aligns Aen. 4.494-497, 507-508, and 648-651 with Lucan's text. Bodoh provides stylistic analyses of Aen. 2.201-227 and Satyricon 29-53. Petronius offers a parody of the Vergilian passage and a subtle critique of Vergil's art. Hardie advocates the use of post-Vergilian epic as a critical aid in our own reading of Vergil. His article treats Vergil's Camilla and Statius' Parthenopaeus as versions of the ``failure of the ephebe'' topic. Laudizi's study of Silius Italicus underlines the Flavian poet's thoughtful, organic reworking of Vergil's themes and structures; he evidently set out to restore traditional historical epic by countering Lucan's overriding pessimism and cynical deconstruction of Vergil's epic. Guerrini finds echoes of Aeneas and the Sibyl in young Titus' encounter with the priest Sostratus in the Aphrodite sanctuary. Finkelpearl concludes that Vergilian echoes in the Metamorphoses produce a folk-tale that is epic, a Psyche who resembles Aeneas. Najock's statistical study indicates that the vocabulary of the Pervigilium Veneris shows less sophistication than that of Vergil's Bucolics. Solimano edits the 3rd century A.D. African Letter of Dido to Aeneas. Feeney's article extends from Homer to Milton.


366. G. Brugnoli, ``La tradizione biografica virgiliana,'' EncVirg 5: 575-585.

367. G. Brugnoli, ``Magia (Polla),'' EncVirg 3: 316-318.

368. A. Guarino, ``Testamento di Virgilio,'' EncVirg 5: 145-147.

369. H. Naumann, ``La Vita Vergilii Donatiana e le sue dirette dipendenze,'' EncVirg 5: 575-575.

370. H. Naumann, G.Brugnoli, ``Vitae Vergiliane: Bibliografia,'' EncVerg 5: 585-588.

371. J. Van Sickle, Poesia e Potere. Il mito Virgilio. Roma & Bari 1986. Rev: Lanzara, Vichiana 15 (1986) 309-313.


372. G. Barabino, ``Nonio Marcello,'' EncVirg 3: 753-758.

373. G. Brugnoli, ``Tiberius Claudius Donatus,'' EncVirg 2: 127-129.

374. P. Bruggiser, Romulus Servianus. La legende de Romulus dans les Commentaires à Virgile de Servius. Mythographie et idéologie à l'époque de la dynastie théodosienne. Bonn 1987. Rev: Dreher, Gnomon 62 (1990) 557-561.

375. M.-L. Delvigo, Testo virgiliano e tradizione indiretta. Le varianti Probiane. Pisa 1987. Rev: Bardon, Latomus 49 (1990) 495-496; Squillante, BStudLat 19 (1989) 159-160.

376. R. Glei, ``Von Probus zu Pöschl: Vergilinterpretation im Wandel,'' Gymnasium 97 (1990) 321-340.

377. C. Lazzarini, ``Elementi di una poetica serviana. Osservazioni sulla construzione del racconto nel commentario all'Eneide II,'' SIFC 82 (1989) 241-260.

378. S. Viarre, ``Les commentaires antiques de la 6e Bucolique de Virgile,'' AC 59 (1990) 98-112.


379. G. C. Alessio, ``Medioevo: Tradizione manoscritta,'' EncVirg 3: 423-443.

380. A. P. Bagliani, Vergilius Romanus. Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3867. Zurich 1985.

381. E. Esposito, G. Piccirillo, ``Edizioni,'' EncVirg 2: 169-178.

382. A. Geyer, Die Genese narrativer Buchillustration. Der Miniaturzyklus zur Aeneis im Vergilius Vaticanus. Frankfurt am Main 1989.

383. M. Geymonat, ``Codici,'' EncVirg 1: 831-838.

384. M. Geymonat, ``Glosse,'' EncVirg 2: 771-773.

385. H. D. Jocelyn, ``Some Notes on Virgil, Probus, Servius and Servius Danielinus,'' Sileno 15 (1989) 5-26.

386. E. Kraggerud, ``Three Problematic Passages in Vergil (Ecl. 4, 8; Georg. 4, 453-456; Aen. 1, 1-7),'' SO 64 (1989) 110-124.

387. E. Kraggerud, ``Further Problems in Vergil (Ecl. 4, 4; G. 2, 508ff.; Aen. 4, 126; 12, 648, 790, 835,'' SO 65 (1990) 63-77.

388. 0. Manzi, F. Corti, ``Dos codices illustrados de la obra de Virgilio,'' BUENOS AIRES 285-297.

389. P. Mertens, ``Les papyrus littéraires latins d'auteurs classiques durant les deux dernières decennies,'' AA.VV., Mélanges R. Poca-Puig (Barcelona 1987) 189-204.

390. G. Papponetti, ``Chi mutilò il Virgilio Mediceo?'', IMV 30 (1987) 323-340.

391. A. Patruccio, ``Papiri,'' EncVirg 3: 964-965.

392. B. Rochette, ``Les traductions grecques de l'Énéide sur papyrus,'' LEC 58 (1990) 333-346.

393. S. Timpanaro, Per la storia della filologia virgiliana antica. Roma 1986. Rev: Della Corte, Maia 39 (1987) 264-266; Horsfall, CR 37 (1987) 177-180; Jocelyn, Gnomon 60 (1988) 199-202; Maso, Lexis (1988) 111-116.

394. R. Vianello, ``Appunti sul commento alle Bucoliche virgiliane nel codice 1084 della Biblioteca Universitaria di Padova,'' Atti e Memoria dell'Accademia Patavina di Scienze Lettere ed Arti 99, Parte III (1986-1987) 57-65.

395. K. Solin, ``Epigrafia,'' EncVirg 2: 332-340.

396. D. H. Wright, Vergilius Vaticanus. Codices e Vaticanis selecti 40. Graz 1980.


397. Alida Louise Allison, Eurydice: The Lost Voice. Diss., University of California, Riverside, 1990. DA 51 (1990) 2371A.

398. Douglas George Biow, Narrative Self-Consciousness of the Marvelous in Virgil, Dante, Ariosto, and Tasso. Diss., The Johns Hopkins University, 1990. DA 51 (1990) 1629A.

399. G. B. Bronzini, ``Leggende Virgiliane,'' EncVirg 3: 166-170.

400. G. B. Bronzini, ``Tradizione popolare,'' EncVirg 5: 230-244.

401. Craig Kallendorf, ``Nachleben: Vergilian Scholarship in the Nineties,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 82-98.

402. A. G. McKay, ``Response,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 98-100. (# 401)

403. Barbara Pavlock, Eros, Imitation and the Epic Tradition. Ithaca 1990. Rev: O'Hara, CW 84 (1991) 398.

404. C. Segal, Orpheus: The Myth of the Poet. Baltimore & London 1989. Rev: Kennedy, JRS 80 (1990) 213; Vessey, CR 40 (1990) 497-498; Christ, CW 84 (1990-1991) 242.

Kallendorf's comprehensive review of research in Vergilian Nachleben is professionally immaculate, critical, suasive, and instructive. Footnotes are plentiful and packed with titles of consequence ranging from manuscripts to pictorial representation. McKay responds and advocates more involvement by classicists: ``the study of Nachleben is no camouflage, no asylum for classical `burnouts,' no place for vague thinking and unsophisticated responses.''


405. C. Baswell, ``The Medieval Allegorization of the Aeneid

: MS Cambridge Peterhouse 158,'' Traditio 41 (1985) 181-237.

406. J. Bately, ``Those Books That Are Most Necessary ~for All Men To Know: The Classics and Late Ninth-Century England, A Reappraisal,'' MIDDLE AGES 45-78.

407. G. Billanovich, Il Virgilio del giovane Petrarca. LECTURES MEDIEVALES 49-64.

408. Virginia Brown, ``Iohanna de Rouado (Scribe) and a Manuscript from Brescia, Fenway Court, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum 1986 (Boston 1987) 20-29.

409. Virginia Brown, ``A Twelfth-Century Virgilian Miscellany--Commentary of German Origin (Vatican MS. Pal. lat. 1695),'' in Scire Litteras: Forschungen zum mittelalterlichen Geistesleben, S. Kraemer, M. Bernhard, eds., (Munich 1988) 73-86.

410. A. Bufano, ``Dante Alighieri,'' EncVirg 1: 985-998.

411. A. Cadei, ``Medioevo (tradizione manoscritta illustrata),'' EncVirg 3: 443-450.

412. R. J. Cormier, ``Laughter and Smiles (And a Few Non-Virgilian Chuckles) in the Old French Roman d'Énéas,'' in Relire le Roman d'Énéas, J. Dufournet, ed., (Paris 1986) 7-23.

413. R. J. Cormier, ``In the Footprints of Virgil: The Roman d'Énéas Author's Twelfth Century Adaptatio in Light of Glossed Aeneid-Manuscripts,'' C&M 41 (1990) 213-227.

414. M. Desmond, ``Bernard Silvestris and the Corpus of the Aeneid,'' MIDDLE AGES 129-139.

415. Penelope R. Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth from Classical Anti~quity Through the Middle Ages. Ithaca 1990. Rev: Rackley, CW 84 (1991) 503.

416. M. Feo, ``Petrarca,'' EncVirg 4: 53-78.

417. J. V. Fleming, Classical Imitation and Interpretation in Chaucer's Troilus. Lincoln, NB 1990.

418. R. Gottlieb, `` Why Can't We `Do Without' Camille?'', MIDDLE AGES 153-164.

419. R. Hollander, ``Dante's Commedia and the Classical Tradition: The Case of Virgil,'' in The Divine Comedy and the Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences, G. di Scipio, A. Scaglione, eds. (Amsterdam & Philadelphia 1988) 15-26.

420. R. Hollander, ``Dante's Virgil: A Light That Failed,'' Lectura Dantis: A Forum for Dante Research and Interpretation 4 (1989) 309.

421. R. Hollander, ``The Canto of the Word (Inferno 2),'' Lectura Dantis Newberryana, P. Cherchi, A. Mastrobuono eds., (Evanston, IL 1990) 95-119.

422. B. F. Huppe, ``Aeneas' Journey to the New Troy,'' MIDDLE AGES 175-187.

423. R. Jacoff, ``Models of Literary Influence in the Commedia'' in Medieval Texts and Contemporary Readers, L. A. Finke, M.B. Schichtman, eds. (Ithaca 1987) 158-176.

424. J. W. Jones, ``The So-Called Silvestris Commentary on the Aeneid and Two Other Interpretations,'' Speculum 64 (1989) 835-848.

425. Ingrid Kasten, ``Herrschaft und Liebe: Zur Rolle und Darstellung des Helen im Roman d'Énéas und im Veldekes Eneas roman,'' Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift 62 (1988) 227-245.

426. C. Leonardi, ``Medioevo (tradizione letteraria),'' EncVirg 3: 420-428.

427. R. M. Fissi, ``Andrea Lancia,'' EncVirg 3: 105-109.

428. J. Pucci, ``Alcuin's Cell Poem: A Virgilian Reappraisal,'' Latomus 49 (1990) 839-849.

429. A. M. Romanini, ``Medioevo (tradizione figurativa),'' EncVirg 3: 428-432.

430. A. Ronconi, ``Echi virgiliani nell'opera dantesca,'' EncVirg 1: 985-988.

431. M. Shapiro, ``Ecphrasis in Virgil and Dante,'' CompLit 42 (1990) 97-115.

432. S. Stevenson, ``Aeneas in Fourteenth-Century England,'' MIDDLE AGES 371-378.

433. Heinrich von Veldeke, [Eneit] Eneide. Translated by J. W. Thomas. New York 1985. Rev: Wilson, CCM 31 (1988) 294-295.

434. J. Whitman, Allegory. The Dynamics of an Ancient Medieval Technique. Oxford 1987.

Hollander's insistence that Dante relied on the text of Vergil has enhanced the importance of Vergil in Dante scholarship and excited fresh evaluation of Vergil's role in the poem. Study of medieval mss. and Christian allegorization of Vergil remains a top priority in scholarship: Virginia Brown's role as director of the Catalogus Translationum project is widely acclaimed. Doob's study of the labyrinth accents the Vergilian labor and its decisive influence in his epic and in the medieval tradition. Kasten's study of the Dido episode in medieval dress reveals that Aeneas is no longer dominated by fate and pietas but must answer to virtues of nobility and allegiance to his position. Dido's passion is open to criticism, but Aeneas is portrayed as an insensitive, contradictory, if not calculating, actor. Shapiro's study of ecphrasis in Vergil and Dante sheds fresh light on Vergil's artistry.


435. P. Boitani, ``John Lydgate,'' EncVirg 3: 294-296.

436. V. Brown, C. Kallendorf, ``Maffeo Vegio's Book XIII to Virgil's Aeneid: A Checklist of Manuscrits,'' Scriptorium 44 (1990) 107-126.

437. William Stuart Buck, Shakespeare's Epic of Fathers and Sons. Diss., University of California, Irvine, 1990. DA 51 (1990) 2383A.

438. M. Caraci Vela, ``Torquato Tasso,'' EncVirg 5: 48-51.

439. G. Caravaggi, ``Garcilaso de la Vega,'' EncVirg 5: 458-459.

440. F. Della Corte, ``Umanesimo,'' EncVirg 5: 366-374.

441. M. Di Cesare, ``Cristoforo Landino on the Name and Nature of Poetry: The Critic as Hero,'' The Chaucer Review 21 (1985) 155-181.

442. A. Field, The Origins of the Platonic Academy of Florence. Princeton 1988.

443. V. Giannantonio, F. Piccirillo, ``Manierismo,'' EncVirg 3: 340-346.

444. M. T. Gaziosi, ``Maffeo Vegio,'' EncVirg 5: 468--469.

445. A. Greco, ``Cristoforo Landino,'' EncVirg 3: 109-112.

446. Donna B. Hamilton, ``Defiguring Virgil in The Tempest,'' Style 23 (1989) 352-373.

447. Donna B. Hamilton, Virgil and The Tempest: The Politics of Imitation. Columbus OH 1990. Rev: Rexine, VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 146-149.

448. C. Jordan, ``The Ending of Bernardo Pulci's Morgante: The Poet as Vergil's Gallus,'' Romanic Review 75 (1984) 399-413.

449. C. Kallendorf, In Praise of Aeneas: Virgil and Epideictic Rhetoric in the Early Italian Renaissance. Hanover, NH 1989. Rev: George, CW 84 (1991) 310-311.

450. M. R. Lojo de Beuter, ``Resonancias virgilianas en la Egloga II de Garcilaso de la Vega de las Bucolicas y la Eneida,'' BUENOS AIRES 252-271.

451. L. A. Montrose, ``Eliza, Queene of Shepheardes and the Pastoral of Power,'' Renaissance Historicism: Selections from English Literary Renaissance, A.F. Kinney, D. S. Collins, eds. (Amherst, MA 1987) 34-63.

452. Patricia Parker, ``Romance and Empire: Anachronistic Cymbeline,'' in Unfolded Tales: Essays on Renaissance Romance, G. M. Logan, G. Teskey, eds. (Ithaca and London 1989) 189-207.

453. R. Portale, ``Christopher Marlowe,'' EncVirg 3: 379-383.

454. D. Puccini, ``Miguel de Cervantes,'' EncVirg 1: 749-753.

455. J. C. Susin Canal, ``La influencia de Virgilio en Antonio Seron,'' Helmantica 39 (1988) 175-205.

456. L. Scancarelli Seem, ``The Limits of Chivalry: Tasso and the End of the Aeneid'' CompLit 42 (1991) 116-125.

457. R. Wiltenburg, ``The Aeneid in The Tempest,'' Shakespeare Survey 391 (1986) 159-168.

Maffeo Vegio's supplement to Vergil's epic remains popular material for research and criticism. Robert Miola (``Vergil in Shakespeare: From Allusion to Imitation,'' Vergil at 2000: Commemorative Essays on the Poet and His Influence, J. D. Bernard, ed. [New York 1986]) observed how ``surprisingly slight and desultory is the extant criticism on Vergil's presence in Shakespeare's art'' (241). It is encouraging to find The Tempest in the foreground this year. Kallendorf (# 4) registers other advances and new directions in research involving Vergil and the Bard of Avon (91-94).


458. Olga Abella, Towards the True Balance of Love: The Role of the Women in Defining the Epic Hero, from Symbolic Object to Co-Hero. Diss., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 1990. DA 50 (1990) 3597A.

459. A. Blecua, ``Luis Góngora,'' EncVirg 2: 779-784.

460. S. Cauchi (ed.), Sir John Harrington: The Sixth Book of Virgil's Aeneid: Translated and Commented on by Sir John Harrington 1604. Oxford 1991.

461. H. Clarke, ed., Vergil's Aeneid and Fourth `Messianic' Eclogue in the Dryden Translation. University Park, PA and London 1989. Rev: Gilmore, CW 84 (1991) 418; Martindale, CR 40 (1990) 258-260.

462. N. Forsyth, ``Having Done All To Stand: Biblical and Classical Allusions in Paradise Regained,'' Milton Studies 21 (1985) 199-214.

463. H. H. Huxley, ``How Well Did Milton Know Virgil?,'' PVS 20 (1991) 15-28.

464. B. K. Lewalski, Paradise Lost and the Rhetoric of Literary Forms. Princeton 1985.

465. A. M. Luisella Fadda, ``John Dryden,'' EncVirg 2: 143-146.

466. G. H. Pages, ``Phèdre, de Racine, sinfonia virgiliana,'' BUENOS AIRES 21-36.

467. R. Portale, `` John Milton,'' EncVirg 3: 521-530.

468. M. Romanos, ``Las fuentes virgilianas de un commentarista de Góngora,'' BUENOS AIRES 373-382.

Cauchi's resurrection of Harrington's somewhat eccentric ``period piece'' offers insights into contemporary responses to Vergil's Sixth Aeneid. Dryden and Milton offer inexhaustible resources for ``classical'' explicators. Huxley's address comments on a few limited passages and considers Milton both as Latinist and adroit imitator of the kind of hexameters one finds in the Eclogues and Aeneid. Huxley argues that only Milton's pastorals capture the Virgilian spirit. Apart from Epitaphium Damonis, which is pure Vergil, Ovid was Milton's first love and preferred model for composition. Classical and Miltonic scholars will find much food for thought by reading Huxley's provocative essay.


469. M. T. R. Barezzani, ``Melodramma,'' EncVirg 3: 463-471.

470. R. Portale, ``James Thomson,'' EncVirg 5: 163-165.


471. M. Marti, ``Giacomo Leopardi,'' EncVirg 3: 181-188.

472. G. W. Most, ``Daphnis in Grasmere: Wordsworth's Romantic Pastoral,'' CABINET 361-385.

473. R. Portale, ``John Keats,'' EncVirg 3: 77-80.

474. R. Portale, ``Alfred Tennyson,'' EncVirg 5: 104-109.

475. R. Portale, ``William Wordsworth,'' EncVirg 5: 646-650.

476. R. Portale, ``George Gordon Byron,'' EncVirg 1: 586-588.

477. R. Portale, ``Thomas Hardy,'' EncVirg 2: 833-835.

478. G. Santangelo, ``Giosuè Carducci,'' EncVirg 1: 659-662.

479. D. Wu, ``Wordsworth on Virgil, Georgics 4, 228-230,'' CQ 40 (1990) 561.

480. D. Wu, ``Three Translations of Virgil Read by Wordsworth in 1788,'' N&Q 37 (1990) 407-409.


481. D. L. Burgess, ``Vergilian Modes in Spike Lee's Do The Right Thing,'' CML 11 (1991) 313-316.

482. E. Chinol, ``T. S. Eliot,'' EncVirg 2: 199-200.

483. Lord Dacre of Glanton, ``Why Virgil? The Presidential Address 1990,'' PVS 20 (1991) 60-75.

484. M. T. Giaveri, ``Paul Valéry,'' EncVirg 5: 427-430.

485. G. Guglielmi, ``Giuseppe Ungaretti e la memoria dell' Eneide,'' GHISELLI 311-324.

486. H. H. Huxley, ``Lacrimae Vergilianae,'' PVS 20 (1991) 46.

487. P. Magno, ``Paul Valéry, traducteur de Virgile,'' LEC 59 (1991) 123-130.

488. W. H. Marx, ``A Song for the Boat Race of the Aeneid, Book V,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 42.

489. G. Maturo, ``Consideraciones sobre la catabasis orfica en la obra de Leopoldo Marechal, `` BUENOS AIRES 292-304.

490. M. Petrucciani, ``Giuseppe Ungaretti,'' EncVirg 5: 391- 394.

491. L. Quattrocchi, ``Hermann Broch,'' EncVirg 1: 536-537.

492. G. Reeves, T. S. Eliot: A Virgilian Poet. New York 1989. Rev: Martindale, CR 40 (990) 457-458.

493. H. C. Rutledge, ``Two Georgic Poets: V. Sackville-West and Vergil,'' DAIDALIKON 301-309.

494. M. T. Suoto de Taphanel, ``A cerca de algunas influencias de Virgilio en La Ville de Paul Claudel,'' BUENOS AIRES 417-425.

495. I. Toppani, ``Una nota su Giovanni Pascoli, `filologo' virgiliano,'' Aufidus 7 (1989) 51-58.

496. A. Traina, ``Giovanni Pascoli,'' EncVirg 3: 998-1005.

T. S. Eliot, Valéry, Pascoli, Sackville-West, and Ungaretti have the lion's share of scholarly attention this year. Lord Dacre's presidential address on Virgil ``for a castaway's reading,'' assesses the appreciable facets and unique qualities of Vergil's poetry in Latin and in translation, where Dryden is best in his view. Burgess treats Mookie and Aeneas and their progress with heroic grace through a world that is murky until the final epiphany where the landscape of ambiguity is revealed as our own. Huxley and Marx offer poems inspired by Vergil in Latin and in English respectively.


497. M. Caraci, ``Niccolo Jommelli,'' EncVirg 3: 4-8.

498. M. Caraci, ``Gian Francesco Malipiero,'' EncVirg 3: 330-332.

499. D. A. Deli, ``Los Troyanos de Berlioz, una lectura clasica y romantica de la Enéida,'' BUENOS AIRES 175-182.

500. Klaus-Dietrich Koch, Die Aeneis als Opernsujet. Dramaturgische Wandlungen vom Frühbarock bis zur Berlioz. Konstanz 1990. Rev: Plenio, Gymnasium 97 (1990) 578-580.

501. A. M. Monterosso Vacchelli, ``Claudio Monteverdi,'' EncVirg 3: 576-580.

502. S. T. Newmyer, ``Some Lesser Lights at Dido's Pyre: Forgotten Musical Portraits of Vergil's Queen,'' VERGILIUS 36 (1990) 35-41.

503. K. Schneider, ``Augusteische und Wiener Klassik. Vergils erste Ekloge im Spiegel der klassischen Sonatensatzes,'' in Musik und Dichtung. Neue Forschungsbeiträge zum 80.Geburtstag gewidmet, M. von Albrecht, W. Schubert, eds. (Frankfurt am Main l990) 173-194.

504. V. Varese, ``Pietro Metastasio,'' EncVirg 3: 503-504.

Koch's review of operas with the Aeneid as inspiration is exemplary. Vergilian studies owe much to the industry and insights provided by Draheim, Koch, and now Schneider in this important area. Newmyer refers to works by André Campra, Pierre de la Garde, Michel de Monteclair, Francesco Busanello and Pier Francesco Cavalli, and Pietro Metastasio. English eighteenth-century versions, after Purcell, were less noteworthy judging by the antics of Stephen Storace and James Hook.


505. L. Canfora, ``Fascismo e Bimillenario della Nascità di Virgilio,'' EncVirg 2: 469-472.

506. G. M. Canova, ``Rinascimento: Tradizione manoscritta illustrata,'' EncVirg 4: 483-490.

507. M. Cerruti, F. Piccirillo, ``Neoclassicismo,'' EncVirg 3: 689-696.

508. B. Davidson, ``The Navigatione d'Enea Tapestries Designed by Perino del Vega for Andrea Doria,'' ABull 72 (1990) 35-50.

509. M. Fagiolo, F. Piccirillo, ``Arti figurative,'' EncVirg 1: 348-362.

510. F. Garber, ``Intertext and Metatext in Blake's Illustrations to Thornton's Virgil,'' Centennial Review 32 (1988) 163-194.

511. A. Garzelli, ``Micropittura su temi virgiliani primo e dopo Apollonio di Giovanni, Apollonio, Giovanni Varnucci, Mariano del Buono e altri,'' in Scritti di storia dell'arte in onore di Federico Zeri, M. Natale, ed. (Milano, 1984) I, 147-162.

512. A. H. Greet, ``Conversations in Arcady: Vergil, Maillol, and Kessler, Eclogues I, II, V and VI,'' Word and Image 3 (1987) 225-247.

513. W. Hefford, ``Another Aeneas Tapestry,'' Artes Textiles 11 (1986) 75-87.

514. L. Herrmann, ``Joseph Mallord William Turner,'' EncVirg 5: 322-324.

515. A. Martindale, Simone Martini: Complete Edition. New York 1988.

516. F. Maier, ``Das Gesicht des Krieges in Vergils Aeneis. Bilder als Anstoss und Ergebnis der Interpretation,'' WJA 16 (1990) 100-116.

517. A. Novara, ``Illustration de l'Elysée virgilien ou le défi du poète à l'illustrateur,'' ALMArv 14 (1987) 75-90.

518. F. Piccirillo, ``Nicolo dell'Abate,'' EncVirg 3: 720-723.

519. F. Piccirillo, ``Peter Paul Rubens,'' EncVirg 4: 587-589.

520. F. Piccirillo, ``Giambattista Tiepolo,'' EncVirg 5: 173-174.

521. Cecilia Powell, Turner in the South: Rome, Naples, Florence. New Haven & London 1987.

522. A. Rinaldi, ``Claude Gelée Lorrain,'' EncVirg 3: 249-255.

Manuscript illuminations, frescoes, tapestries, paintings, woodblocks and book illustrations are all in the foreground. Maier's illustrated article on illustrators' responses to the killing of Turnus is aligned with contemporary criticism of the vexed ending of the epic. The Enciclopedia entries provide some illustrations and abundant bibliography for the curious and adventurous Vergilian scholar.

Alexander G. McKay
McMaster University
15 August 1991