Bibliography of Vergilian Scholarship: 1992-1993


Table of Contents

The present survey of Vergilian Scholarship is the thirty-first in the VERGILIUS Series. Classical World68:1 (1974), published in association with The Vergilian Society, Inc., contains my "Recent Work on Vergil: A Bibliographical Survey, 1964-73." The survey was reprinted in The Classical World Bibliography of Vergil, ed. Walter Donlan (New York & London: Garland, 1978). Subsequent reviews have appeared in VERGILIUS 19 (1973) to 38 (1992).

The 1992-1993 compilation is greatly indebted to the assistance and cooperation of several libraries: Mills Memorial Library, McMaster University; Robarts Library, University of Toronto, and The Library of the American Academy in Rome. Notices, offprints and facsimiles of articles, chapters, and titles have been generously provided by readers. Scholars and authors are respectfully invited to send material and advice to the editor, Alexander G. McKay, Department of Classics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M2, Canada. FAX: 1-(905)-577-6930.

N.B. "AAVV " = auctores varii.


1. Juliette Ernst, Viktor Poeschl, Laurence D. Stephens, eds., L'Anneé Philologique, Bibliographie critique et analytique de l'antiquité greco-latine. 60 (1991 [1989]); 61 (1992 [1990]).

2. Vincent J. Cleary, "Aeneidea: Important Work on the Aeneid (1987-92) for Secondary Teachers," VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 113-23.

3. "Bibliography of the Classical Tradition for 1989," CML 12 (1992) 259-66.

4. Alexander G. McKay, "Vergilian Bibliography 1991-1992," VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 89-112.

5. Alexander G. McKay, "Bibliography of the Published Writings," McKAY 15-36.


6. Antonio Butteto, Michael von Albrecht, eds. Studi di filologia classica in onore di Giusto Monaco. Palermo, 1991. MONACO

7. Francesco Della Corte, dir. Enciclopedia virgiliana. Volume 5, 2. "Virgilio, Opere, Fontes, Indici." Roma, 1991. Rev: Traina, "Bilancio di un'enciclopedia," RFIC120 (1992) 111-23.

8. Carl Deroux, ed. Studies in Latin Literature and History. Vol. 5 (Brussels, 1990); Vol. 6 (Brussels, 1992). DEROUX.

9. Ian McAuslan, Peter Walcot, eds. Virgil. (Greece and Rome Studies). Oxford, 1990. Rev: Nugent, CO 70 (1992-3) 75.

10. Robert M. Wilhelm, Howard Jones, eds. The Two Worlds of the Poet: New Perspectives on Vergil. Festschrift for Alexander G. McKay. Detroit, 1992. McKAY.

11. T. P. Wiseman, Talking to Virgil. A Miscellany. Exeter, 1992.

12. Antonie Wlosok, "Celebrazione centenarie," ENCVIRG5, 114-18.


13. Mario Geymonat, Francesco Della Corte, Virgilio. Bucolica/Le Bucoliche, ENCVIRG5 120-40.

14. Mario Geymonat, Francesco Della Corte, Virgilio. Georgica/Le Georgiche ENCVIRG5 141-81.

15. Mario Geymonat, Francesco Della Corte, Aeneis: Eneide ENCVIRG5 183-370.

16. J. Grosfillier, "Une structure absente. A propos d'un passage de Virgile et de sa traduction," BAGB 1991:2, 151-73.

17. J. Michie, "Virgil's Fourth Eclogue," TLS 46721 (Oct. 25, 1991) 12.

18. David West, Virgil: The Aeneid: A New Prose Translation. Harmondsworth, 1990; New York, 1991. Rev: Rutledge, CW 86 (1992-3) 67-8; Huxley, Phoenix 47 (1993) 70-1; Perkell, CO 70 (1992-3) 149.


19. Vincenzo Ciaffi (tr.), Guido Pette (text), Appendix Vergiliana. ENCVIRG 5:371-426.

20. W. Ax, "Marcellus, die Mucke, Politische Allegorien im Culex?," Philologus 136 (1992) 89-129.

21. A. Franzoi, ed. Copa. L'Ostessa poemetto pseudovirgiliano. (Venice, 1988). Rev: Cavarzere, Prometheus 14 (1988) 285-6.

22. V. J. C. Hunink, "Ondergrondse stromen-Lucretius en der Aetna-Dichter," Lampas 22 (1989) 22-35.

23. Allan Kershaw, "Culex 73 and Heinsius," CQ 42 (1992) 566-7.

24. D. Lassandro, "Gli incendia etnei in alcune testimonianze antiche e nell'Aetna pseudovirgiliana," CISA 15 (1989) 133-8.

25. W. H. Parker, Priapea: Poems for a Phallic God. Introd., transl., edition, notes & commentary. London, 1988. Rev: Fowler G&R 36 (1989) 108-9.

26. A. Perutelli, "Epilegomena al Moretum," MD 22 (1989) 189-200.

27. A. Perutelli, "Magis + comparativo e Culex 79," MONACO 987-94.

28. R. J. Tarrant, "Nights at the Copa: Observations on Language and Date," HCSP 94 (1992) 331-47.

Ax perceives the Augustan Mausoleum behind Culex. Kershaw reads viduatos instead of viduos, a, lumina. Tarrant argues against the early years of Augustus in favor of the later 1st century A.D.


29. A. Alberte, "El tratamiento del amor en la Egloga I de Virgilio," Fortunatae 2 (l991) 225-9.

30. Richard Gordon Lewis, Unity through Character: Vergil's Eclogue Book. Master's thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, Can., 1990.

31. N. Toderascu, "Les symboles végétaux bacchiques dans les Bucoliques et les Géorgiques," LF 106 (1983) 43-6.

32. Georgios Tourlides, "Rhetoric survivals in Vergil's Eclogues," Platon 40 (1988) 61-5 (Greek, with résumé in English).

33. Irene Maria Weiss, "Poetica bucolica: de la pasion al simbolo," QUCC 42 (1992) 143-8.

34. Ibolya Tar, "Niveaux de l'existence pastorale chez Virgile," BAGB 4 (1992) 337-45.

Weiss reviews E. A. Schmidt's Bukolische Leidenschaft oder über antike Hirtenpoesie (Frankfurt am Main, 1987).


35. M. G. Bonnano, "L'Allusione necessaria. Ricerche intertestuali sulla poesia greca e latina. Rome, l990. Rev: Vetta, RFIC 120 (1992) 77-82 (Eclogue 6).

36. F. Della Corte, "La toga calda di Titiro," Opuscula IX (Genoa, 1985) 257-9.

37. Norbert H. O. Duckwitz, Originality and Unity in Virgil's Third Eclogue. Diss., Univ. of Colorado, 1987. DA 98 (1988) 2056.

38. Gloria S. Duclos, "Vergil's Messianic Mystery," NECN 17 (1990) 19-23.

39. Joseph Farrell, "Literary Allusion and Cultural Poetics in Vergil's Third Eclogue," VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 64-71.

40. J.P. Guepin, "Vergilius, Ecloga 10," D. den Hengst, ed., Van Homerus tot van Lennep. Griekse en latijnse literatuur in Nederlands vertaling. Muiderberg, 1992. 120-3.

41. Llewelyn Morgen, "Quantum sat erit: Epic, Acne and the Fourth Eclogue," LCM 17 (1992) 76-9.

42. S. P. Vander Kloet, "On the Etymology of Vaccinium L.," Rhodora 94 (1992) 371-3.

Farrell follows Conte's approach to Vergil's arte allusiva and the approach of the American New Historicists in a penetrating study of the third Bucolic. Morgen conjectures that the epic imagery in Eclogues 4 and 6 derives from Varro of Atax's Argonautica ca. 45-40 BCE. The prediction of a second Heroic Age in the fourth Bucolic is simply a catalogue of (literally!) second-hand poetic themes. Vander Kloet argues against the derivation of vaccinium (Ecl. 2.18.50; 10.39) from vacinthus and supports baccinium ("berry").


43. Livia Castano Musico, ed. Angelo Poliziano: Commento inedito alle Georgiche di Virgilio. Firenze, 1990. Rev: Horsfall, VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 151-2.

44. Joseph Farrell, Vergil's Georgics and the Traditions of Ancient Epic: The Art of Allusion in Literary History. New York & Oxford, l991. Rev: Johnston, CO 70 (1992-3) 38; O'Hara, CJ 88 (1992-3) 80-4.

45. R. A. B. Mynors, ed. Virgil. Georgics. Oxford, 1990. Rev: Clauss, VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 126-34; Johnston, CO 70 (1992-3) 38; Moorton, CW 86 (1992-3) 367.

46. Christine Perkell, The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics. Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1989. Rev: Geymonat, Gnomon 64 (1992) 352-3; Glei, Gymnasium 99 (1992) 352-4; 0'Hara, CJ 88 (1992-3) 77-80.

47. Richard F. Thomas, Virgil. Georgics. Vol. 1 Books I-II; 2 Books III, IV. Cambridge 1988. Rev: Heuzé, Latomus 81 (1992) 683.


48. Francesco Boldrer, "Virgilio, Georg. 2, 332," MD 29 (1990) 145-57.

49. N. Dewar, "Octavian and Orestes in the Finale of the First Georgic," CQ 38 (1988) 563-5; 40 (1990) 580-2.

50. Robert Griffin, "The Numbers of Time in Georgic I," DEROUX 5:143-59.

51. Richard Jenkyns, "Virgil and the Euphrates," AJP 114 (1993) 115-22.

52. Mario Labate, "Virgilio, Georg. 1, 333 s.," MD 22 (1989) 187.

53. M. Lambert, "Marxist Literary Criticism and Virgil, Georgics 4, 153-196," Akroterion 33 (1988) 58-65.

54. M. A. R. Matellanes, A. Ramirez der Verger, "Poesia y musica en el Orfeo y Euridice de Virgilio, G. IV. 453-527," Latomus 51 (1992) 819-34.

55. A. Giordano Rampioni, "Impius miles." A proposito di una lettura del secondo libro delle Georgiche Virgiliane," Aufidus 16 (1992) 41-9.

56. Richard F. Thomas, "The Old Man Revisited: Memory, Reference and Genre in Virg. Georg. 4, 116-148," MD 29 (1992) 35-70.

57. A. Traglia, "Quoi nomen asilo Romanumst, oestrum Grai vertere vocantes (Georg. III, 147 sg.)," MONACO 901-05.

58. C. Weber, "Dodona reneges: A Neglected Oxymoron in Georgics 1, 149," CP 86 (1991) 323-7.

59. H. J. W. Wijsman, "Female Power in Georgics 3. 269/270," HSCP 94 (1992) 259-61.

Boldrer rejects germina and prefers gramina. Griffin traces numerical and temporal indicators as effecting a compromise with abstruse astronomical lore and folklore. Jenkyns concentrates on repeated references to the Euphrates in the Georgics and Aeneid and responds to Scodel and Thomas (AJP 105 [1984] 339). Labate reads plangunt, and deletes ingenti vento as redundant. Lambert aligns the allegory of the bees with Octavian's ideology. Thomas continues the critical trend from biography (the ex-pirate) to study of the poetic imagination in connection with the celebrated Corycian. The passage is aligned with a complex tradition of literary history, particularly Alexandrian (Philitas). He detects a transplanting and conflation of old pastoral figures of Arcadia and Parnassus and a terminal elegy in Galaesus (Aen. 7.535-9). Wijsman's intertextual study explores the relevance of proper names (Gargara and Ascanius).


60. Francis Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic. Cambridge, 1989. Rev: Harrison, TLS 4510 (8-14 Sept. 1989) 984; Wankenne, LEC 57 (1989) 370.

61. E. Coleiro, "Il punto focale in Virgilio," MONACO 879-96.

62. Catherine Connors, "Seeing cypresses in Virgil," CJ 88 (1992-3) 1-17.

63. Gian Biagio Conte, " `Rhetoric of Imitation' as Rhetoric of Culture; Some New Thoughts," VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 45-55 (transl. Glenn W. Most).

64. J. A. S. Evans, "The Aeneid and the Concept of the Ideal King: The Modification of an Archetype," McKAY 146-56.

65. Denis Feeney, "The Aeneid as a Poem of History," (excerpt), CO 70 (1992-3) 94-6.

66. Karl Galinsky, "Reading Vergil's Aeneid in Modern Times," Classical and Modern Interactions. Postmodern Architecture, Multiculturalism, Decline and Other Issues, K. Galinsky, ed. (Austin, TX, 1992) 74-92.

67. R. Gaskin, "Turnus, Mezentius and the Complexity of Virgil's Aeneid," DEROUX 6, 295-316.

68. R. F. Glei, Der Vater der Dinge. Interpretationen zur politischen, literarischen und kulturellen Dimension des Krieges bei Vergil. Trier, 1991. Rev: Voit, Gymnasium 100 (1993) 181-4.

69. Scott Edmund Goins, The Agricultural Life as a Heroic Ideal in Homer and Virgil. Diss., Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, 1988. DA 49 (1989) 2207A.

70. K. W. Gransden, Vergil: The Aeneid. Cambridge & New York, 1990. Rev: Devine, CB 67 (1991) 49-50; Nugent CO 70 (1992-3) 75.

71. J. B. Hainsworth, The Idea of Epic. Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1991. Rev: Gransden, CR 42 (1992) 198-9; Jutras, CW 86 (1992-3) 71; King, CJ 88 (1992-3) 281-3.

72. Bernice Jefferis, "Interpreting Vergil: Across the Arts, Across the Curriculum," Augustan Age 10 (1990-1992) 80-4.

73. Jessie Maritz, "Towards a Zimbabwean Aeneid: A Pedagogical Exercise," NECN 20 (1992) 27-31.

74. A. Michel, "Poésie et sagesse chez Virgile," BAGB 3 (1992) 307-19.

75. William R. Nethercut, "Gilbert Highet's Raising of Italy: Aeneid 3. 523-524," McKAY 229-36.

76. Barbara Pavlock, "The Hero and the Erotic in Aeneid 7-12," VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 72-87.

77. V. Poeschl, "Fides bei Virgil," MONACO 897-900.

78. Licinia Ricotilli, "Tum breviter Dido voltum demissa profatur (Aen. 1, 561): individuazione di un `cogitantis gestus' e delle sue funzione e modalità di rappresentazione nell'Eneide," MD 28 (1992) 179-227.

79. David R. Slavitt, Virgil. New Haven & London, 1992. Rev. Nappa and Smith, CJ 88 (1992-3) 292-5; Rexine, VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 147-8.

80. Charles Segal, "Literary History as Literary Theory: The Work of G. B. Conte," VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 39-44.

81. Thomas J. Sienkewicz, The Classical Epic. Pasadena, CA, 1991. Rev: Ascher, CW 86 (1992-3) 69-70.

82. Joel Thomas, "L'espace du héros ou les destins croisés, Eranos-Jb 56 (1987) 133-77.

83. Joel Thomas, "L'espace de l'Énéide, ou la quête du sens," BAGB 3 (1992) 252-61.

84. Mary K. Thornton, "Damage Control in the Aeneid: or Rescuing the Military Reputation of Augustus," Latomus 51 (1992) 566-70.

85. Thomas Van Nortwick, Somewhere I Have Never Travelled. The Second Self and the Hero's Journey in Ancient Epic. New York, 1992. Rev: Galinsky, VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 156-8; Gentilcore, NECN 20 (1992) 37-8.

86. David Bradford Wharton, Ambiguity in the Aeneid. Diss., Univ. North Carolina, 1992. DA 53 (1993) 2357.

87. Robert M. Wilhelm, "Dardanus, Aeneas, Augustus and the Etruscans," McKAY 129-45.

88. Susan Ford Wiltshire, Public and Private in Vergil's Aeneid. Amherst MA, 1989. Rev: Moorton, NECN 17 (1990) 42-3.

89. Susan Lindgren Wofford, The Choice of Achilles: The Ideology of Figure in the Epic, Diss., Stanford, 1992.

Connors examines the imagery and mythical associations of the cypress tree in Aeneid 2, 4, and 7. Evans explores Vergil's use of the archetype of the ideal king but with significant alterations to suit his poetic purpose. Galinsky examines Aeneas in the light of modern concepts of masculinity, social responsibility, distrust of rhetoric in the epic and in today's society, and internal heroism and strong emotions. Gaskin argues that Vergil combines, without reconciling them, divergent commitments in Turnus. There is no uniformity of response. Responses oscillate between tragic sympathy for the Italic hero as tragic victim of Juno (cf. Hercules) and outright antipathy. Nethercut explores tonality and "metamorphoses" of Italia throughout Aeneid 1-4. Pavlock explores intertextual allusions that associate martial and erotic concerns in a complex way in Vergil's narrative involving Aeneas, Pallas, and Dido. Slavitt's composite nature, as poet, novelist and critic, and as translator of Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics enables him to accent reasons for Vergil's age-old reception. Reviewers waver between sympathetic response and rejection. Segal's address to the APA Symposium (1991), organized by Ward W. Briggs, Jr., highlights the quality of Conte's qualities as critic, his theoretical position, his concern with interaction between "epic code" and "epic norm," and with generic tensions. Thomas' imaginative article explores the symbolism of cross-roads in the epic: past, present, and future; and the dialectic of male and female (Aeneas, Venus, and Juno). Thornton examines techniques which enable Vergil to counteract the stigma attaching to Augustus' wimpish battle performance. Wharton's dissertation treats semantics and pragmatics in Aeneid 1-4. Wilhelm's contribution accents Aeneas' "home-coming" to lead his Etruscans to Augustan victory.


90. L. Gamberale, "Il cosidetto preproemio dell'Eneide," MONACO 963-80.

91. Stavros Frangoulidis, "Duplicity and Gift-Offerings in Vergil's Aeneid 1 and 2," VERGILIUS 38 (1992) 26-37.

92. E. L. Harrison, "Aeneas at Carthage: The Opening Scenes of the Aeneid," McKAY 109-128.

93. Egil Kraggerud, "Which Julius Caesar? On Aen. 1.286-296," SO 67 (1992) 103-12.

94. Douglas Little, "The Song of Iopas: Aeneid 1.740-46," Prudentia 24 (1992) 16-36.

95. F. Davidson, "Tragic Daughter of Atlas?," Mnemosyne 45 (1992) 367-71.

96. V. Marin, "Coniugium vocat, hoc praetexit nomine culpam (Enéide, IV 172)," LEC 61 (1993) 131-8.

97. G. Pascucci, "Verg. Aen. 5, 329," MONACO 981-6.

98. D.H. Berry, "The Criminals in Virgil's Tartarus: Contemporary Allusions in Aeneid 6.621-4," CQ 42 (1992) 416-20.

99. Giorgio Brugnoli, "Verg. Aen. 6, 871," GIF 40 (1988) 229-30.

100. Raymond J. Clark, "Vergil, Aeneid 6: The Bough by Hades' Gate," McKAY 167-78.

101. Gordon T. Cockburn, "Aeneas and the Gates of Sleep: An Etymological Approach," Phoenix 46 (1992) 362-4.

102. Sabine Grebe, Die vergilische Heldenschau: Tradition und Fortwirken. Frankfurt am Main, 1989.

103. Egil Kraggerud, "On the Text of Aeneid 6, 852," SQ 66 (1991) 115-7.

104. Jean Mingay, "The Jaws of Hades: Virgil and Lake Avernus," Omnibus 24 (1992) 29-32.

105. R. H. Rodgers, "Qui sui memores alios fecere merendo: The Roman Reward for Public Service," NECN 19 (1992) 24-27.

106. Urania Molyviati Toptsi, Aeneid VI.724-899: The Myth of the "Aeterna Regina". Diss., Ohio State Univ., 1992. DA 53 (1992) 488.

107. Colin M. Wells, "Aeneas in Purgatory," McKAY 179-88.

108. G. P. Goold, "The Voice of Virgil: The Pageant of Rome in Aeneid 6," Tony Woodman, Jonathan Powell, eds., Author and Audience in Latin Literature (Cambridge, 1992) 110-23.

109. James E. G. Zetzel, "Romane memento. Justice and Judgment in Aeneid 6," TAPA 119 (1989) 263-84.

Harrison's essay concentrates on the introduction of Aeneas, his earliest speeches and their Homeric models, and on discordant critical reaction to what Aeneas has to say. Kraggerud rejects the calculated ambiguity notion regarding Aeneid 1.286-96 (vs. O'Hara and Austin) and identifies Caesar with Caesar Augustus. Marin argues that there was no marriage between Dido and Aeneas; his position was correct. Brugnoli argues that Augustus' laudatio for Marcellus was source for Vergil, Aeneid 6.871 and Propertius 3.18.15-16. Clark questions whether the Golden Bough really did assist Aeneas in finding and entering within the Gate of Hades. Cockburn challenges Austin (1977), Gotoff (1985), Tarrant (1982) and West (1987) with his etymological approach to the celebrated Gates. Goold's study is marked by his customary precision and insight; it should be required reading in Vergil seminars. Kraggerud (1987) weighs pacis against paci and adduces reasons in favor of the former: "imposing upon the nations the way of a peaceful life" as opposed to "setting the stamp of civilized usage upon peace." Mingay's illustrated article adduces some travellers' portrayals. Wells asks whether Vergil's account of the underworld helped to shape the Christian doctrine of Purgatory, and whether Aeneas himself does in any sense pass through a purgatorial experience. Zetzel's important article notes that Vergil's Hades aligns mystery cult with the problems of justice and morality in contemporary Rome. The Ludi Saeculares are central to the episode.

110. Jonathan Foster, "Three Passages in Virgil," SO 66 (1991) 109-14.

111. R. J. Starr, "Silvia's Deer (Vergil, Aeneid 7.479-502): Game Parks and Roman Law," AJP 113 (1992) 435-9.

112. G. McLeod, "Wild and Tame Animals and Birds in Roman Law," New Perspectives in the Roman Law of Property: Essays for Barry Nicholas (Oxford, 1989) 169-76.

113. G. Moretti, "Aen. 7.543: il volo di Alletto," SIFC 9 (1991) 112-20.

114. Michael C. J. Putnam, "Umbro, Nireus and Love's Threnody," VERGILIUS 38 (1992) 12-23.

115. A. Novara, "Poésie virgilienne de la mémoire. Questions sur l'histoire dans l'Énéide 8," BAGB 1 (1992) 89-91.

116. J.-Y. Maleuvre, "L'Énéide sous l'Énéide d'après une étude du dixième livre (première partie)," RBPh 70 (1992) 672-92.

117. Alfonso Traina, "Soror alma (Verg. Aen. X.439)," Maia 43 (1991) 3-7.

118. S. J. Harrison, ed. Vergil. Aeneid 10. Oxford & New York, 1991. Rev: Fowler, G&R 39 (1992) 224-6; O'Hara, CW 86 (1992-3) 246-7; Thomas, VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 134-44.

119. Donato Gagliardi, "La preghiera di Turno ad Aen. X, 668-679. Considerazioni eterodosse sulla Innenwelt del personaggio," Vichiana 17 (1988) 109-19.

120. Sebastiano Timpanaro, "Virgilio, Aen. 10, 543-52," MD 20-21 (1988) 91-118.

121. Susan Ford Wiltshire, "War and Peace in Aeneid 10," McKAY 189-205.

122. K. W. Gransden, Virgil Aeneid Book XI. Cambridge, 1991. Rev: T.L. Calder, VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 144-6; Fowler, G&R 39 (1992) 225-6.

123. Colin Mackie, "Quisquis in arma vocas: Turnus and Jupiter in the Aeneid," Antichthon 24 (1990) 79-85.

124. C. J. Mackie, "Vergil's Dirae, South Italy, and Etruria," Phoenix 46 (1992) 352-61.

125. D. Noonan, "Daunus/Faunus in Aeneid 12." ClAnt 12 (1993) 111-25.

126. Robert J. Rowland, Jr., "Ductor Rhoeteius: Vergil, Aeneid 12.456," McKAY 237-43.

127. Pierre Salat, "Le fin de l'Énéide," Actes du colloque international de Clermont-Ferrand 20 (1984) 11-8.

128. Jean Salem, De la tragédie à l'histoire. Une introduction à la lecture de l'Énéide. Paris, 1988.

Foster, inter alia, associates oranti (Aen. 7.446) with arrogance, an element in Turnus' key quality of audacia. Starr notes that Vergil exaggerates and extends elements of the reality of game parks (vivaria) into an idyllic context which offers more than "real-life" details. Moretti favors connixa over connexa and convexa. Wiltshire approaches Vergil's treatment of war and its violence in Aeneid 10 in the context of war literature of the twentieth century. Putnam studies the Nachleben of Vergil's anaphoric laments, the portrayal of Umbro (Aen. 7.750-60), priest, magician and soldier, its sources, particularly in Homeric Nireus (Il. 2.671-5) and Vergil's harmonizing of love-song and dirge. Gagliardi studies Turnus' prayer to Zeus, a turning-point in his resistance to divine will. Timpanaro favors ense. . . ferro over the conjectured ecce . . . ferro (vs. ense ferro). Fowler's review includes Matthew Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum 840-5 in the Nachleben of Pallas' death. Mackie (1992) identifies the Dirae as Allecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone, and locates them in a wide cross-cultural context. Mackie's Antichthon article treats Turnus' gradual recognition that Jupiter's support is an illusion. His pietas is an essential factor in bringing disaster closer. Noonan explores the association of Daunus and Faunus with the Latins. Rowland argues that Aeneas' killing of Turnus is his final act of pietas; the Trojan hero acts as a surrogate for Pallas who would have been praesidium for Ascanius (Aen. 11.57f.)


129. D. Averna, "Donna in Virgilio: significato-significanti," MONACO 943-61.

130. Charles L. Babcock, "Sola. . .multis e matribus: A Comment on Vergil's Trojan Women," McKAY 39-50.

131. F. Bellandi, "Ganimede, Ascanio e la gioventŚ Troiana," MONACO 919-30.

132. G. Brugnoli, "Sedula nutrix," MONACO 931-42.

133. J. F. Davidson, "Tragic Daughter of Atlas," Mnemosyne 45 (1992) 367-71.

134. Maria Delia Buisel De Sequeiros, "Amor y política en la Eneída," Argos 9-10 (1985-6) [1989] 7-22.

135. Mario Erasmo, The Death of Turnus in the Aeneid. Diss., Univ. Ottawa, 1990.

136. Pierre Grimal, "Les Amours de Didon ou Les Limites de la Liberté," McKAY 51-63.

137. Richard Jenkyns, "Virgil's Women," Omnibus 25 (1993) 1-4.

138. Stratis Kyriakidis, "Aeneas' Narrative and the Epic Reality developed during the Night," Philosophical School of the Aristotelian University of Thessalonike 2 (1992) 19-37.

139. Dennis Ronald Lamb, Narrative Structure and the Paradoxes of Character in Aeneid 7-12. Diss., Univ. of Washington, Seattle. DA 49 (1989) 2646A.

140. M. Owen Lee, "Seven Suffering Heroines and Seven Surrogate Sons," McKAY 82-92.

141. C. J. Mackie, "A Note on Dido's Ancestry in the Aeneid," CR 88 (1993) 231-3.

142. J. J. O'Hara, "Dido as `Interpreting Character' at Aeneid 4.56-66," Arethusa 26 (1993) 99-112.

143. Yoshihiro Oshiba, "The Character of Turnus in the Aeneid," Mediterraneus 12 (1989) 59-76 (Japanese, with English résumé).

144. J. Pigon, "Dido, Diana, and Penthesilea: Observations on the Queen's First Appearance in the Aeneid," Eos 79 (1991) 45-53.

145. J. P. Sullivan, "Dido and the Representation of Women in Vergil's Aeneid," McKAY 64-73.

146. Michelle P. Wilhelm, "Minerva in the Aeneid," McKAY 74-81.

Babcock treats the particular importance of the scene of Euryalus' mother and the impact of war on the women of Italy. "Vergil has counterpoised three references to Trojan women that mark the evanescence of their existence as `Trojans' as the inevitability of their destiny emerges" (49). Davidson finds specific links between Dido and Atlas which add a further dimension to her tragedy. Buisel de Sequeiros studies Aeneid 4 and 6. Grimal provides a perceptive review of novel features of the celebrated love story. Jenkyns' popular article treats Eurydice, Dido, and Creusa. Kyriakidis' article examines the manner in which nocturnal events of Aeneid 2 and 3 influence Aeneas' character development and the degree to which he is affected by his own night-narration. Lee highlights two patterns of seven, and the loci which bear directly on them: Dido's appearance with seven mythic heroines in Hades, and Aeneas' loss of seven surrogate sons after leaving Dido. Mackie accents ancestral ties between Dido and Turnus. O'Hara examines the sacrificial scene and Dido's inaccurate "reading." Dido does not realize that her surrender to love for Aeneas will bring her to ultimate disaster and death. Vergil's deliberate ambiguity is characteristic. Oshiba traces Turnus' links with Homeric Paris, Hector, and Achilles, but highlights his Italic virtus and devotio. Sullivan (whose recent death is lamented by Vergilians and by scholars worldwide) contests the critical stance of latent misogyny in the epic. The power of Vergil's poetic genius and his human sympathy defies the straitjacket of his contemporary social and political environment. "The artist deliberately transcends the Augustan ideologue; the portrait of Dido remains one of the most impressive literary depictions of a woman that we have in ancient epic" (72). Michelle Wilhelm shows that weaving imagery and references to Minerva and her realms help to juxtapose scenes of war and domesticity throughout the epic and accent the terrible human costs of war.


147. Bernard Accardi et al., Recent Studies in Myths and Literature, 1970-1990. An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CT, 1991.

148. J. N. Bremmer and N. M. Horsfall, Roman Myths and Mythography. London, 1987. Rev: Pinsent & Jocelyn, LCM 17 (1992) 97-103, 103-112 respectively.

149. Jane Davidson Reid, The Oxford Guide to Classical Mythology in the Arts. 1300-1990s. 2 vols. Oxford & New York, 1993.

150. Judith H. Yarnall, The Transformation of Circe. The History of an Archetypal Character. Diss., McGill Univ., Montreal, 1989. DA 50 (1989) 943A.


151. AAVV, Segesta: Storia della ricerche, parco e museo archeologico ricognizioni topografiche (1987-88) e relazione preliminare della campagna di scavo 1989, appendice. ASNP 21 (1991) 765-994 (with bibliography, 987-94).

152. R. Chevallier, La romanisation de la Celtique du Po I., Les données géographiques. Paris, 1980.

153. R. Chevallier, Geografia, archeologia e storia della Gallia Cisalpina. (Ital. transl.). Turin, 1988.

154. R. Chevallier, "Sur trois passages de Virgile: L'Archéologie des Anciens," McKAY 206-28.

155. Philippe Desy, "La Traversée de l'Apennin par Horace," Latomus 47 (1988) 620-5.

156. E. Ebel, "Southern Gaul in the Triumviral Period," AJP 109 (1988) 572-90.

157. Karl Galinsky, "Aeneas at Rome and Lavinium," McKAY 93-108.

158. Mary Katherine Jaeger, The Poetics of Place: The Augustan Writers and the Urban Landscape of Rome. Diss., Univ. California, Berkeley, 1990. DA 52 (1991) 1316A.

159. John R. Patterson, "The City of Rome from Republic to Empire," JRS 72 (1992) 186-215.

160. Connie Lynn Rodriguez, Poetry and Power: Studies of Augustan Monuments and the Poets of the Augustan Age. Diss., Johns Hopkins Univ., 1990. DA 51 (1990) 498A.

161. Giuliano Volpe, La Daunia nell'età della romanizzazione. Prefazione, Mario Torelli. Bari, 1990. Rev: Mazzei, Gnomon 64 (1992) 471-3.

Chevallier (155) re-examines Georgics 1.493-7, 4.228-9, and Aeneid 1.358-9 and provides an exceptional review of ancient archaeological practice and "discoveries." Galinsky's essay deals with the current state of the question of the Aeneas legend involving Rome and Lavinium. Patterson's extensive survey article is immensely instructive.


162. Eleanor Winsor Leach, The Rhetoric of Space: Literary and Artistic Representation of Landscape Republican and Augustan Rome. Princeton, 1988. Rev: Hurwit, CompLit 44 (1992) 84-6.

163. Gregor Maurach, "Der vergilische und der Vatikanische Laokoon. Mit einem Anhang zu Michelangelos Laokoon-Zeichnung und Taf.I-VII," Gymnasium 99 (1992) 227-47.

164. J. Mingay, "Poetry and the Visual Arts in Virgil," PCA 89 (1992) 26-7.

Mingay's article explores temple description at three places in the epic, always at important turning-points. The figure has broader implications for the nature of the Aeneid and its relationship with the contemporary world.


165. Philippe Bourgeaud, ed., Orphisme et Orphée en l'honneur de Jean Rudhardt. Geneva, 1991.

166. D. Briguel, "Les légendes de fondation latines et initiation," INITIATION (# 177 below) 51-7.

167. G. Capdeville, "La jeunesse de Camille," INITIATION (# 177 below) 143-56.

168. H. MacL. Currie, "Vergilius Viator: du Jardin au Portique," BAGB 3 (1992) 262-72.

169. Jeanne Dion, "L'expérience du sacré chez Virgile: l'exemple de l'aegritudo," BAGB 3 (1992) 297-306.

170. Christopher Faraone, Talismans and Trojan Horses (Guardian Statues in Greek Myth and Ritual). Oxford, 1992.

171. D. C. Feeney, The Gods in Epic: Poets and Critics of the Classical Tradition. New York & Oxford, 1991. Rev: Beye, CW 86 (1992-3) 176; Hardie, JRS 82 (1992) 252-6; Ward, CO 70 (1992-3) 73-4.

172. S. Gely "Poiesis: l'expérience de la métamorphose et l'approche poétique du divin chez Virgile; la modification par le nom," BAGB 2 (1992) 181-94.

173. Marcello Gigante, Filodemo in Italia. Florence, 1990. Rev: Kleve, AAHG 45 (1992) 149.

174. K. Kleve, "Lucretius in Herculaneum," CronErc 19 (1989) 527.

175. J. J. O'Hara, Death and the Optimistic Prophecy in Vergil's Aeneid. Princeton, 1990. Rev: Boyd, AJP 113 (1992) 467-70; Geymonat, Gnomon 64 (1992) 721-2.

176. Vivianne Mellinghoff-Bourgerie, Les Incertitudes de Virgile. Contribution epicurienne à la théologie de l'Énéide. Brussels, 1990. Rev: Erdt, Gymnasium 99 (1992) 354-5.

177. Alain Moreau, ed., L'initiation. Tome I: Les rites d'adolescence et les mystères; Tome II: L'acquisition d'un savoir ou d'un pouvoir. Le lieu initiatique. Parodies et perspectives. Montpellier, 1992. INITIATION.

178. Angela Maria Negri, "Le psyche chez Virgile: Conceptions et terminologie," BAGB 3 (1992) 273-94.

179. Grant Parker, "The Divine Machinery of the Aeneid," Akroterion 34 (1989) 181-90.

180. D. S. Potter, Prophecy and History in the Crisis of the Roman Empire: A Historical Commentary on the Thirteenth Sibylline Oracle. Oxford, 1990. Rev: Atwood, CW 86 (1992-3) 47; Devine, CB 67 (1991) 50-1; Geiger, CR 42 (1992) 16-17.

181. E. M. Steinby, ed., Lacus Iuturnae. I.1. Analisi delle fonti; 2. Materiali dagli scavi. Roma 1989. Rev: Wiseman, JRS 82 (1992) 229-30.

182. Joel Thomas, "De l'ordalie à l'initiation. Le voyage d'Enee," Latomus 48 (1989) 36-44.

183. Joel Thomas, "L'Énéide, récit initiatique," INITIATION (# 177 above) 251-60.

184. R. Turcan, "L'élaboration des mystères dionysiaques à l'époque héllenistique et romaine: De l'orgiasme à l'initiation," INITIATION (# 177 above) 215-33.

185. Robert M. Wilhelm, "The Metamorphosis of the Golden Age in Greek and Latin Writers," Augustan Age 10 (1990-92) 58-74.

Currie conceives of Vergil as a universalist whose dramaturgy allows him to incorporate past and contemporary values, religious and philosophical, Epicurean and Stoic. Moral "sickness," for Dion, is a Vergilian preoccupation, a malaise which poetry may alleviate by reliance on destiny. Negri's essay progresses from Aeneid 6.729-51, with overtones of Orphism, Pythagoreanism, Platonism, and Stoicism, to define the human and universal spirit. Potter's introduction provides splendid background to the Sibylline oracular tradition.


186. Catherine Edwards, "At Home with Augustus," Omnibus 24 (1992) 1-4.

187. Karl Galinsky, "Leadership, Values, and the Questions of Ideology: The Reign of Augustus," Classical and Modern Interactions. Austin, TX, 1992, 93-115.

188. N. Horsfall, "Empty Shelves on the Palatine," G&R 40 (1993) 58-67.

189. A. D. Manfredini, "Ottaviano, l'Egitto , i senatori e l'oracolo," Labeo 32 (1986) 7-26.

190. J. Nagore de Zand, "Las temas de la épica augustal en Virgilio y Horácio," AFC 12 (1992) 75-92.

191. Kurt A. Raaflaub, Mark Toher, Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and His Principate. Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1990. Rev: Benario, CO 70 (1992-3) 78.

192. Jane Clark Ruder, "Typology and Ideology in the Mausoleum of Augustus: Tumulus and Tholos," ClAnt 11 (1992) 265-307.

Edwards explores the Augustan regimen on the Palatine properties. Galinsky examines some views of Augustus, the moral dimension of leadership, the moral culture, and architecture and art. Horsfall treats problems connected with the libraries associated with the Palatine Temple of Apollo.


193. Gianluigi Baldo, "I mollia iussa di Ovidio (ars 2, 196)," MD 22 (1989) 37-47.

194. W. W. Batstone, "Amor improbus, felix qui, and tardus Apollo: The Monobiblos and the Georgics," CP 87 (1992) 287-302.

195. S. Costanza, "Virgilio nelle citazioni e nelle allusioni critiche dei poeti dell'età augustea," AAPel 66 (1990) 89-216.

196. G. D'Anna, "Il rapporto di Orazio con Virgilio," C&S 112 (1989) 54-61.

197. Marilyn Desmond, "When Dido Reads Virgil: Gender and Intertextuality in Ovid's Heroides 7," Helios 20 (1993) 56-68.

198. Siegmar Dopp, "Nec omnia apud priores meliora. Autoren des frühen Prinzipäts über die eigene Zeit," RhM 132 (1989) 73-101.

199. J. D. Ellsworth, "The Episode of the Sibyl in Ovid's Metamorphoses," Homage to Edgar C. Knowlton Jr., ed. Roger L. Hadlich & J. D. Ellsworth (Honolulu, 1988) 47-55. KNOWLTON.

200. R. Elaine Fantham, "Metamorphoses Before the Metamorphoses: A Survey of Transformations Before Ovid," Augustan Age 10 (1990-92) 7-18.

201. Stavros A. Frangoulidis, "Charite's Literary Models: Vergil's Dido and Homer's Odysseus," DEROUX 6, 435-50.

202. C. P. Frost, "Propertius 3.3.45-46: Don't Go Near the Water," AJP 111 (1991) 251-9.

203. Genovefa Imme, "De quadam epistula ad Vergilium Horatiumque pertinente," Latinitas 40 (1992) 210-15.

204. P. Nerandau, "Asinius Pollio et la poésie," ANRW II.30.3 (1985) 1732-50.

205. Alessandro Pardini, "La colpa di Aiace e la poesia augustea," MD 22 (1989) 201-6.

206. J. Pucci, "Horace and Virgilian Mimesis: A Re-Reading of Odes I.3," CW 85 (1991-2) 659-73.

207. Michael C. J. Putnam, "The Language of Horace Odes I. 24," CJ 88 (1992-3) 123-35.

208. Riggs Alden Smith, Allusions of Grandeur. Studies in the Intertextuality of the "Metamorphoses" and the "Aeneid." Diss., Univ. Pennsylvania, 1990. DA 51 (1991) 4110A.

209. Martina Steinkuehler, "Macht und Ohnmacht der Götter im Spiegel ihrer Reden," Wiss. Beitr. aus europ. Hochschulen R.5, No. 3. Hamburg, 1989.

210. Garth Tissol, "Ovid's Little Aeneid and the Thematic Integrity of the Metamorphoses," Helios 20 (1993) 69-79.

Batstone studies Propertian echoes of Vergil's Georgics in the Monobiblos (ca. 29-28 BCE). Labor, in the sense of "work" and "need for work" is the best response to worldly faults and failures. Fantham's survey includes Vergilian episodes and references. Frangoulidis examines Ovid, Met. 8.1-176. Pardini reflects on echoes of Ajax's sacrilegious action during the sack of Troy in Vergil, Aen. 2.403-6, Ovid, Met. 13.408-11 & Fasti 3.45ff., and Propertius, 4.1.113-18. Putnam provides the script for an intertextual dialogue involving consolatio and epicedium between Catullus and Vergil. Steinkuehler treats Vergil, Ovid, and Valerius Flaccus. Tissol raises the spectre of Ovidian parody of Vergil's epic.


211. Jerzy Linderski, "Vergil and Dionysius," VERGILIUS 38 (1992) 3-11.

Linderski convincingly demonstrates that Dionysius "represents the pre-Augustan layer of Roman mythology of the origines; he does not criticize Vergil's vision or the official version of the new regime: he disregards them." (11).


212. Barry Baldwin, "Half-Lines in Virgil: Old and New Ideas," SO 68 (1993) 144-51.

213. Ward W. Briggs, Jr., "The Similes of Aeneid 5," McKAY 157-66.

214. M. Dubrocard, "Quelques remarques sur l'evolution du vocabulaire caratéristique de Virgile," Hommage à René Braun. Tome I: De la prehistoire à Virgile: philologie, littérature et histoire ancienne, Jean Granarolo, Michèle Biraud, eds. Nice, 1990.

215. Rodney Stenning Edgecombe, "A Typology of Ecphrases," CML 13 (1993) 103-17.

216. Scott Goins, "Two Aspects of Virgil's Use of Labor in the Aeneid," CJ 88 (1992-3) 375-89.

217. Gabriele Moehler, Hexameterstudien zu Lukrez, Vergil, Horaz, Ovid, Lukan, Silius Italicus und der Ilias Latina. Frankfurt, 1989.

218. Philippe Heuzé, "Sens et figures dans l'Énéide," BAGB 3 (1992) 295-6.

219. Efterpe Mitsi, Writing Against Pictures. A Study of Ekphrasis in Epic by Homer, Virgil, Ariosto, Tasso, and Spenser. Diss., New York Univ., 1991. DA 52 (1992) 4322a.

220. Robert J. Newman, "The Smile of Fate. The Use of the Smile Formulas in the Aeneid," KNOWLTON (# 199 above) 214-21.

221. R. I. Ross, "Dido and Aeneas: The Function of the Similes," Classicum 18 (1992) 37-41.

222. P. Salat, "Mots clés et mots évités chez Virgile," ALMArv 12 (1985) 65-78; 15 (1988) 77-90.

223. P. Salat, "Un ma être-mot chez Virgile, l'adjectif ingens," ALMArv 10 (1983) 71-84.

224. Alberto J. Vaccaro, "De Lucrecio a Virgilio. Evoluçion del hexametro," Argos 9-10 (1985-86) [1989] 137-42.

Are Vergil's half-lines intentional or unfinished, a metrical experiment or unintentional? Baldwin studies a Neronian intentional (?) hemistich as a novelty. Briggs examines the distinctive use of similes in the Fifth Aeneid. He suggests that they have a more immediate source than Homer, namely Vergil's personal repertoire, upon which their function and tone depends. Edgecombe ranges over the tradition of ecphrasis from Homer to Iris Murdoch. Goins studies Vergil's different viewpoints on labor and its different connotations. Newman examines instances of olli subrigens and ad quae subridens. Salat's concern is with statistical methodology.


225. Carmine Ampolo, "Enea ed Ulisse nel Lazio da Ellanico a Festo (FGrHist. 4 F84)," PP 266 (1992) 321-42.

226. Marzia Bonfanti, "Virgilio, Aen. 3, 508-11 e Apollonio Rodio," MD 20-21 (1988) 299-303.

227. R. D. Brown, "The Homeric Background to a Vergilian Repetition," AJP 111 (1990) 182-6.

228. F. Della Corte, "Arato nelle Georgiche," C&S 111 (1989) 39-45.

229. Annette Lucia Giesecke, The Influence of Lucretius on the Bucolic, Heroic Epic, Satires, and Lyric Poetry of the Early Augustan Period. Diss., Harvard Univ., 1992. DA 53 (1992) 1506A.

230. Robert Hannah, "The Stars of Iopas and Palinurus," AJP 114 (1993) 123-5.

231. Michael Haslam, "Hidden Signs: Aratus, Diosemeiai 46ff., Vergil's Georgics 1.424ff.," HSCP 94 (1992) 199-204.

232. John Higgins, "Aeneas: Augustan Hero in the Homeric Age," NECN 19 (1992) 21-3.

233. A. S. Hollis, "Hellenistic Colouring in Virgil's Aeneid," HSCP 94 (1992) 269-85.

234. H. Jacobson, "Cacus and the Cyclops," Mnemosyne 42 (1989) 101-2.

235. Robert B. Lloyd, "Plautus and Terence in Vergil: A Servian Perspective," McKAY 244-53.

236. Zsigmond Ritoók, "Zur trojanischen Trilogie des Euripides," Gymnasium 100 (1993) 109-25.

237. Garth Tissol, "An Allusion to Callimachus' Aetia 3 in Vergil's Aeneid 11," HSCP 94 (1992) 263-8.

Bonfanti finds an echo of Apollonius Rhodius, 1.950-5 in Aen. 3.294-303. Brown examines "stargazers" at Aen. 1.742-6, and 3.513-17 and argues for reliance on Homer, Od. 5.271-5, and Il. 18.483-9. But Hannah counters with the argument that Aen. 3.516-7 relies solely on Od. 5.271-5, not on Il. 18.483-9. Haslam studies Geo. 1.427-35, the celebrated but curious acrostic (MA VE PU), in a larger context. Hollis is concerned with less well recognized affinities of Vergil's epic with widely varying types of Hellenistic poetry and individual Hellenistic poets, with stylistic variety in Vergil's catalogues, local history and antiquarianism, reges et proelia, and darker colouring (Aen. 12.409-19). Lloyd's engaging essay examines comic parallels cited in the Servian corpus. Tissol argues for Callimachean influence at Aen. 11.581-2 (Aetia), and 581-4 (Cydippe). Ritook examines the Euripidean account of Palamedes.


238. G. Brugnoli, "Silio, Stazio, Ausonio e Foca `Carm. de Verg.'," GIF 40 (1988) 237-40.

239. G. Brugnoli, "Statius Christianus." Italianistica 17 (1988) 9-15.

240. Lucia Caiani, "Presenza di Drance nella Tebaide di Stazio," Maia 41 (1989) 235-40.

241. A. De Vivo, "Seneca, la citazione virgiliana, la paura del terremoto (nat. 6, 2, 2)," "Come dice il poeta . . .": Percorsi greci e latini di parole poetiche, A. De Vivo, L. Spina, eds. Naples, 1992. 119-30.

242. Michael Dewar, Statius, Thebaid IX. Edited, with translation and English commentary. Oxford, 1991. Rev: Fantham, CJ 88 (1992-3) 94-6; Hill, CR 42 (1992) 308; McGuire, NECN 19 (1992) 39-40; Newmeyer, AJP 113 (1992) 641-3; Pucci, CW 86 (1992-3) 163.

243. Francis M. Dunn, "A Prose Hexameter in Seneca? (Consolatio ad Marciam 26, 7)," AJP 110 (1989) 488-91.

244. Donato Gagliardi, "Il banchetto in Lucano (note a Phars. X, 104-17l)," SIFC 5 (1987) 186-92.

245. Philip Hardie, "Flavian Epicists on Virgil's Epic Techniques," Ramus 18 (1989) 9-16.

246. Philip Hardie, The Epic Successors of Virgil. A Study in the Dynamics of a Tradition. Cambridge, 1993.

247. Jochem Kuppers, "Tityrus in Rom-Bemerkungen zu einem vergilischen Thema und seiner Rezeptiongeschichte," ICS 14 (1989) 33-47.

248. Stratis Kyriakidis, "Eve and Mary: Proba's Technique in the Creation of Two Different Female Figures," MD 29 (1992) 121-53.

249. Gerald Malsbary, "Epic Exegesis and the Uses of Vergil in the Early Biblical Poets," Florilegium 7 (1985) 55-83.

250. François Paschoud, "Imitatori di Virgilio nel mondo classico," ENCVIRG5, 105-6.

251. G. Privitera, "Glosse virgiliane in Giustino?," GIF 2 (1992) 215-40.

252. A. J. Schroeder, "La relaçion Virgilio-Marçial en Epigrammata Liber VIII 56," AFC 12 (1992) 187-98.

253. Sarah Spence, Rhetorics of Reason and Desire: Vergil, Augustine, and the Troubadours. Ithaca 1988. Rev: Paden, CompLit 44 (1992) 92-4.

254. Charles-Marie Ternes, "From Vergil to Ausonius: Poets on World Politics," McKAY 392-407.

Statius drew on Vergil, Aen. 11.343-75 for comparable scenes of dissidence (1.171ff., 3.92-3, 3.216 and 10.580-3). Dunn finds echoes of Vergilian meter, language, and content (Aen. 6.669-71 and Ovid, Met. 15.456-8). Gagliardi argues that Lucan's banqueting scene echoes Dido's hospitality to Aeneas (1.636-41). Hardie's study of epic successors of Vergil includes Ovid, Lucan, Statius, Valerius Flaccus, and Silius Italicus. Kyriakidis argues that the Christian poetess supplied her own ideas and comments on Eve and Mary by adroit choice of lines and contexts for her cento. Kuppers traces Vergil's first Bucolic in Calpurnius Siculus, Nemesianus, and the Late Antique writers. Malsbary studies the methods of Cyprianus Gallus, Sedulius, and Marcus Victor in producing a synthesis of Judaeo-Christian scriptural lessons and Greco-Roman epic by paraphrase and more sophisticated devices. Ternes studies the world-politics of two poets who were close to emperors, Augustus and Valentinian, and canny advisers; their combination of Past and Future gave greater credibility to imperial policy and suggested a new way of life.


255. G. Brugnoli, Fabio Stok, "Fontes ad vitam Vergilii pertinentes," ENCVIRG5 429-539.

256. G. Brugnoli, "Osservazioni sulla Vita Vergilii di Foca," Maia 40 (1988) 153-7.

257. Francesco Della Corte, "Virgilio: Biografia," ENCVIRG5 2-97.

258. M. Gigante, M. Capasso, "Il ritorno di Virgilio a Ercolano," SIFC 82 (1989) 3-6.

259. Fabio Stok, "La vita di Virgilio di Zono de'Magnalis," RCCM 33 (1991) 144-81.

Brugnoli and Stok provide a comprehensive coverage from Fontes Antiquiores (but omitting Horace and Propertius!) to testimonia of the 15th century, with a compilation of editions. Della Corte's biography of the poet is exemplary. Stok's article provides a Latin text and apparatus for the 14th century Bolognese treatise.


260. Iosepha Barabino, Antonius V. Nazzaro, Antoninus Scivoletto, Interpretationes Vergilianae minores. 1. Genoa, 1991.

261. Massimo Gioseffi. Studi sul Commento a Virgilio dello Pseudo-Probo. Florence, 1992.

262. Charles E. Murgia, "Aldheim and Donatus' Commentary on Vergil," Philologus 131 (1987) 209-99.

Barabino et al. have combed all Latin literature for testimonia relating to Vergil. The first volume includes Q. Terentius Scaurus, Velius Longus, and Aelius Donatus and extends from the earliest survivals to the Age of Constantine.


263. Francesco Boldrer, "Quod Iulius Hyginus affirmatissime contendit (Gell. 1, 21 ad Verg. Georg. 2, 247)," MD 29 (1992) 183-98. (amaror).

264. M. Bandini, "Un uso librario antico e la critica al testo di Virgilio," A&R 36 (1991) 96-9.

265. Virginia Brown, "A Twelfth-Century Virgilian Miscellany-Commentary of German Origin (Vatican Ms. Pal. Lat. 1695)," Scire litteras. Forschungen zum mittelalterlichen Geistesleben. Bernhard Bischoff gewidemet, Sigrid Kramer, Michael Bernhard, eds. Munich, 1988. 73-86.

266. H. Harrauer, R. Pintaudi, "Virgilio ed il dimenticato recto di PSI II 142," Tyche 6 (1991) 87-90.


267. Olga Abella, Toward the True Balance of Love: The Role of the Women in Defining the Epic Hero, from Symbolic Object to Co-Hero. Diss., State Univ. New York, Stonybrook, 1989. DA 50 (1990) 3597A

268. S. Budick, "The Prospect of Tradition: Elements of Futurity in a Topos of Homer and Virgil," NewLitHist 22 (l991) 23-37.

269. Mario Di Cesare, "Interrupted Symmetries: Terza Rima, Heroic Verse, First Lines, and the Styles of Epic," Mediaevalia 12 (1986) [1989] 271-30.

270. Steven Dillon, Tragic Idyll: Studies in the Poetics of Virgil, Milton, and Tennyson. Diss., Yale Univ., 1988. DA 50 (1989) 1309A.

271. Jeremy Maltby Downes, Fierce Love and Faithless Wars: Violence, Sex and Recursive Desire in Epic Tradition. Diss., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, 1991. DA 52 (1992) 3916A.

272. Peter Dronke, Hermes and the Sibyls: Continuations and Creations. Cambridge & New York, 1990. Rev: Devine, CB 67 (l991) 50-2.

273. James D. Garrison, Pietas from Vergil to Dryden. University Park, PA, 1992.

274. Shane Stuart Gasbarra, Conceptions of Literacy in the Epic Similes of Homer, Vergil, Dante, and Milton. Diss., Yale Univ., 1990. DA 52 (l991) 156A.

275. M. L. Gasparov, "Virgilio, poeta del futuro," Eikasmos 2 (1991) 201-25.

276. Jasper Griffin, "Virgil," The Legacy of Rome: A New Appraisal, Richard Jenkyns, ed. Oxford, 1992. 126-50.

277. Johannes Irmscher, ed., Vergil. Antike Weltliteratur in ihrer Enstehung und Nachwirkung. Eine Aufsatzsammlung. Amsterdam, 1993.

278. Richard Jenkyns, "Pastoral," The Legacy of Rome: A New Appraisal, Richard Jenkyns, ed. Oxford, 1993. 151-75.

279. Craig Kallendorf, ed., Virgil (Classical Heritage 2). New York & London, 1992.

280. Alexander McGregor, "The Fourth Rome: Vergil's Vision and It's (sic) Survival," CB 67 (l991) 29-36.

281. Charles Martindale, Redeeming the Text: Latin Poetry and Hermeneutics of Reception. Cambridge, 1993.

282. Barbara Pavlock, Eros, Imitation, and the Epic Tradition. Ithaca & London, 1990. Rev: Kallendorf, AJP 113 (1992) 443-6; King, CJ 88 (1992-3) 283-5; Rexine, VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 1159-61.

283. Rosario Portale, Virgilio in Inghilterra Saggi. Pisa, 1991. Rev: Kallendorf, VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 154-5.

284. Donald Quint, Epic and Empire: Politics and Generic Form from Virgil to Milton. Princeton, 1993.

285. Charles Segal, Orpheus: The Myth of the Poet. Baltimore, 1989. Rev: Strauss, CompLit 44 (1992) 312-14.

286. Antonie Wlosok, "Die römische Klassik: zur "Klassizität" der augusteischen Poesie," Klassik im Vergleich Normativität und Historizität europäischer Klassiken, Wilhelm Vosskap, ed. Stuttgart/Weimar, 1993. 331-47, 433-5.

Abella's study includes Homer, Vergil, and Spenser. Di Cesare argues that "Dante and Milton forged a style that raised the vernacular in its own way close to the sublimity achieved by Vergil in the epic hexameter." Dronke examines continuities in Hermetic and Sibylline tradition through Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages and Italian Renaissance. Griffin confines his account to the legacy to Britain. Irmscher's collection includes A. Effenberg, "Spätantike illustrierte Vergilhandschriften," S. Neumeister, "Vergil und Dante," M. Erxleben, "Goethe und Vergil," J. Oehlert, "Schillers Aeneis-Ubertragung," and V. Riedel, "Vergil in der DDR-Literatur? Uber Schwierigkeiten bei der Rezeption historischer Themen." Martindale provides select texts of Vergil, Ovid, Horace, and Lucan in the perspective of reception-history from their origin to today. Quint traces the tradition of epics of conquest and empire from Vergil to Camžes and Tasso, and epics of defeat and republican liberty from Lucan to Ercilla and d'Aubigné. Wlosok includes estimates of the Georgics in her wide-ranging essay.


287. Mowbray Allan, "Does Dante Hope for Virgil's Salvation?," MLN 104 (1989) 193-205.

288. Glen C. Arbery, "Antica Lupa: Dante, Virgil and the Discontinuity of Allegory," ABR 37 (1986) 369-70.

289. David J. Bradshaw, "Milton's Adaptation of the Virgilian Hero," MHLS 12 (1989) 35-45.

290. Raymond Cormier, "An Example of Twelfth Century Adaptatio: The Roman d'Eneas Author's Use of Glossed Aeneid Manuscripts," RHT 19 (1989) 279-89.

291. Raymond Cormier, "In the Footprints of Virgil: The Roman d'Eneas Author's Twelfth Century Adaptatio in Light of Glossed Aeneid-Manuscripts," C&M 41 (1990) 213-34

292. Peter Godman, Oswyn Murray, eds., Latin Poetry and the Classical Tradition. Essays in Mediaeval and Renaissance Literature. Oxford, 1990. Rev: David & Jocelyn, RFTC 119 (l991) 486-93.

293. Katherine Heinrichs, "Love and Hell: The Denizens of Hades in the Love Poems of the Middle Ages," Neophil 73 (l989) 593-604.

294. R. Hofman, "Some New Facts Concerning the Knowledge of Vergil in Early Medieval Ireland," EC 25 (1989) 180-212.

295. Rachel Jacoff, Jeffrey T. Schnapp, eds., The Poetry of Allusion: Virgil and Ovid in Dante's "Commedia." Stanford 1991. Rev: Colakis, CW 86 (1992-3) 246.

296. James H. McGregor, The Shades of Aeneas. The Imitation of Vergil and the History of Paganism in Boccaccio's "Filostrato," "Filocolo," and "Teseida. Athens, GA, & London, 1991. Rev: O'Connor, CW 86 (1992-3) 51-2.

297. Alison Morgan, Dante and the Mediaeval Other-World. Cambridge, 1990. Rev: Devine, CB 68 (1992) 114-5.

298. Silvio Pasquazi, "Il personaggio dantesco," ENCVIRG5 107-13.

299. Paola Rigo, "Tra `maligno' e `sanguigno': Memoria classica e biblica nella Commedia," LI 41 (1989) 173-224.

300. C. Roccaro, "Rinnegamento e divieto della lectio virgiliana nella Vita Alcuini," MONACO 1519-33.

301. Charles Stanley Ross, "Vergil in the Middle Ages," DMA 12 (1989) 393-5.

302. Albert L. Rossi, "The Poetics of Resurrection: Virgil's Bees (Paradiso XXXI.1-12)," RR 80 (1989) 305-24.

303. Marianne Shapiro, "Virgilian Representation in Dante," LDant 5 (1989) 14-29.

304. R. A. Shoaf, "Lo gel che m'era intorno al cor (Purg. 30.97) and frigidus circum praecordia sanguis (Georg. 2, 488): Dante's Transcendence of Virgil," LDant 5 (1989) 30-45.

Allan scrutinizes Paradiso 19-20 regarding Vergil's everlasting exile. Cormier's article on adaptation treats Servius' commentary and Aeneid Ms scholia. Jacoff and Schnapp provide nine essays on Vergil in Dante. Rigo argues that Dante combined Vergilian imagery and Vergilian and Biblical vocabulary to describe the Underworld. Rossi examines Vergil's bee simile (Aen. 5.703-9) metamorphosed by Dante as angels among the beatified souls. Shapiro argues for polysemy in Vergil's epic and Dante's Commedia.


305. M. C. Andrew, "Virgil's Camilla and the Death of Hector," ShakesQ 43 (1992) 219-21.

306. William Blissett, "Caves, Labyrinths and The Faerie Queene," Unfolded Tales: Essays in Renaissance Romance, George M. Logan, Gordon Teskey, eds. Ithaca, 1989. 281-311.

307. George Frank Butler, The Spiritual Odyssey and the Renaissance Epic. Diss., Univ. Connecticut, 1988. DA 49 (1989) 2209A.

308. Craig Kallendorf, A Bibliography of Venetian Editions of Virgil, 1410-1559. Florence, l991. Rev: Robin, VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 153-4.

309. David Quint, "Epic and Empire," CL 41 (1989) 1-32.

310. François Rigelot, "Between Homer and Virgil: Mimesis and Imitatio in Ronsard's Epic Theory," Renaissance Readings: lntertext and Context, Maryanne Kline Horowitz, ed. Champaign, IL, 1988. 67-79.

Andrews studies Hector's death in Troilus and Cressida. Quint studies triumphal narratives in the Aeneid and Pharsalia which resound in Renaissance works, Orlando Furioso and Camžes' Lusiads. Ronsard's Franciade, according to Rigolot, combines Homeric origins with Vergilian perfection of style.


311. Dennis Scott Brooks, "Paradise Lost" and the Commented Epic. Diss., Univ. Nebraska, 1991. DA 52 (1992) 3609A.

312. Rachel A. E. Falconer, Some Aspects of the Influence of Virgil on Milton's Style. Diss., Oxford Univ., 1989. DA 53 (1993) 3202A.

313. Ron Charles Feathergill, The Tension between Divine Will and Human Free Will in Milton and the Classical Epic Tradition. Diss., Univ. California, Riverside, 1988. DA 49 (1989) 1793A

314. W. R. Johnson, "Dismal Decorations: Dryden's Machines in Aeneid 12," McKAY 433-47.

315. Donale Swanson, Joan Mulryan, "Milton's On the Morning of Christ's Nativity: The Virgilian and Biblical Matrices," MiltonQ 23 (1989) 59-66.

Swanson and Mulryan are involved with parallels between Vergil's Messianic Eclogue and Milton's usages of the Book of Revelation. Johnson's rebuttal to Dryden (1697) and Joseph Trapp (1731) vitiates their charges of narrative tricks and regrettable errors by demonstrating the essential function (and Vergilian idiosyncrasy) of Juturna and the Dira in the Twelfth Aeneid. Vergil "arranged for Turnus' death to be delayed by various means ("all machinery work," in Dryden's brusque phrase) until his poem could explode from the compressed force of its antinomies, its baroque shell, into glittering fragments, like Turnus' sword: fulva resplendent fragmina harena (12, 741)" ( p. 445).


316. Roger Savage, "Antiquity as Nature: Pope's Fable of `Young Maro' in An Essay on Criticism," Colin Nicholson, ed., Alexander Pope: Essays for the Tercentenary, Aberdeen, 1989. 83-116.


317. Giuseppe Acciani, "L'Ombre de Mezenzio (Contributo alla lettura del Cinque Maggio)," LI 41 (1989) 588-90.

318. A. M. Cooper, "The Apian Way: Virgil's Bees and Keats's Honeyed Verse," TexStudLitLang 33 (1991) 160-81.

319. Roxanne M. Gentilcore, "American Georgic: Vergil in the Literature of the Colonial South," CML 13 (1993) 257-70.

320. William H. Race, "Classical and Romantic Poetic Journeys," CML 10 (1989) 27-45.

321. Marie Pinel, "La tempête chez Chateaubriand: influence virgilienne et pensée chrétienne," BAGB 4 (1992) 395-408.

322. M. Thackeray, "Christopher Pitt, Joseph Warton, and Virgil," RevEngStud 43 (1992) 329-46.

323. Anne D. Wallace, "Farming on Foot: Tracking Georgic in Clare and Wordsworth," TexStudLitLang 34 (1992) 509-40.

Acciani detects Vergil's Mezentius in Manzoni's estimate of Napoleon. Gentilcore traces the path of post-Vergilian georgic and treats American georgics and works related to this tradition.


324. Julia Budenz, "Lines from `Vision'," VERGILIUS 38 (1992) 24-5.

325. Marianthe Colakis, "An American Eurydice: V. R. Lang's Fire Exit," CML 13 (1992) 53-61.

326. M. Geymonat, "Aceste e Anchise nella memoria poetica di Umberto Saba," MONACO 1809-12.

327. M. Geymonat, "Tradizione e originalità negli studi canadesi su Virgilio," McKAY 458-66.

328. Herbert H. Huxley, "Versum unum sapiens facies e versibus octo," VERGILlUS 33 (1992) 182.

329. Herbert H. Huxley, "Arma Dabunt Ipsi (Aeneid 2.391)," VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 87.

330. David Ricks, "Seferis and the Classics: A Note," CML 9 (1989) 359-62.

331. Tarsico Herrera Zapien, "La revelaçion de Virgilio en Borges," Plural 209 (1988) 10-14.

332. David Huisman, "Title and Subject in The Sacred Wood," EIC 39 (1988) 217-33.

333. L. R. Lind, "Vergil, Pound, and Eliot," CML 13 (1992) 7-14.

334. G. Lombardo, "Valéry traduttore di Virgilio," Testo a fronte 3 (1990) 33-46.

335. Cliff Mason, "On the Sibyl at Cumae," CO 70 (1992-3) 134-5.

336. Viktor Poeschl, "Fallgrüben für den klassischen Philologen," McKAY 478-88.

337. Harry C. Rutledge, "A Late Twentieth-Century Reading of Vergil's Eclogues: The Shepherd as Artist," McKAY 467-77.

338. Lisa St. Louis, "Laus Italiae," VERGILIUS 33 (1992) 124.

339. George Thaniel, "Four `Neoclassical' Poems," McKAY 489-91.

Colakis studies Lang's 1952 experimental drama. Budenz, Huxley, Mason, St. Louis, and Thaniel, have produced Latin and English verse on Vergilian themes. Geymonat assesses the Canadian contribution to Vergilian studies and scholarship. Herrera Zapien studies Borges' involvement with Vergil, Horace, and Homer. Huisman is concerned with the epic as source and explanation for Eliot's title. Lind, inter alia, counters Pound's contrary nature, not least in asserting that "Virgil is a second-rater, a Tennysonianized version of Homer." Poeschl's cautionary essay treats "vogues" and inept responses to classical literature. Rutledge studies the Eclogue Book as a revelation of the artist's life. "The arch poet, Gallus, in Vergil's rendering, is as many-faceted as a Cubist portrait by Picasso."(476). Vergil's description of art and the artist accords well with contemporary notions.


340. Klaus Dietrich Koch, Die Aeneid als Opernsujet-Dramaturgische Wandlungen vom Frühbarock bis zu Berlioz. Konstanz, 1990. Rev: Vanhulst, Latomus 51 (1992) 932.


341. "Indici delle illustrazioni" ENCVIRG5, (luoghi 596-604), (soggetti, 605-10), (autori, 611-12).

342. Luba Freedman, The Classical Pastoral in the Visual Arts. New York & Bern, 1989.

343. Domenico Guzzi, Arma virumque cano: Giorgio de Chirico, il mito classico dell'eroe guerriero. Rome, 1989.

344. Alexander G. McKay, "Vergil's Campania and the Art of J. M. W. Turner," The Burnett Lectures: A Quarter Century. E. N. Genovese, ed. San Diego, CA., 1993. 129-41.

345. Federica Piccirillo, "Iconografia medievale e moderna," ENCVIRG5 103-4.

346. U. Schmitzer, "Der Tod des Laokoon im 20-Jahrhundert. Zur VergilRezeption in Cees Nootebooms Roman Rituelen," Arcadia 27 (1992) 190-6.

347. Elizabeth Ewing Tebow, Arcadia Reclaimed: Mythology and American Painting 1860-1920. Diss., Univ. Maryland 1987. DA 48 (1988) 1917A-1918A.

348. H. J. Tschiedel, "Ovid und Vergil in Eichstatt: Zur bildnerischen Rezeption antiker Mythendichtung in Residenz und Hofgarten," SHVE 80 (1987-8) 68-9.

349. Helga von Heintze, "Ritratti antichi," ENCVIRG5 98-102.

350. Antonie Wlosok, "Gemina pictura: Allegorisierende Aeneisillustrationen in Handschriften des 15. Jahrhunderts," McKAY 408-32 (6 color plates).

The color (and black-and-white) plates in the five volumes of Enciclopedia Virgiliana provide a useful gallery of manuscript illuminations, paintings, sculpture, and objets d'art. Freedman traces classical pastoral from antiquity to Renaissance, Baroque, and Rococo versions. Wlosok's resplendent article accents the allegorical aspect of Renaissance manuscripts.

Alexander G. McKay
York University
16 August 1993